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Rapid infusion of 0.25 ml/g of 0.9% saline over 30 minutes has been shown to have no effect on electrolyte balance, neurological severity score (NSS), or brain edema, following closed head trauma (CHT). Rapid infusion of the same volume of 5% dextrose solution decreased blood sodium concentration, increased edema, and decreased NSS following CHT. In the(More)
Early experience with continuous monitoring of jugular venous oxygen saturation (SjvO2) suggested that this technology might allow early identification of global cerebral ischaemia in patients with severe head injury. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between episodes of jugular venous desaturation and neurological outcome.(More)
The traditional practice of elevating the head in order to lower intracranial pressure (ICP) in head-injured patients has been challenged in recent years. Some investigators argue that patients with intracranial hypertension should be placed in a horizontal position, the rationale being that this will increase the cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) and(More)
OBJECTIVE Preliminary clinical experience with a novel, compact, intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided system that can be used in an ordinary operating room is presented. DESCRIPTION OF INSTRUMENTATION The system features an MRI scanner integrated with an optical and MRI tracking system. Scanning and navigation, which are operated by the(More)
Excitatory amino acids (EAA), mainly glutamate and aspartate, are released in excessive amounts from terminals of ischemic or traumatically injured neurons. These excessive levels of EAAs initiate a cascade of events believed to lead to secondary delayed damage to the surrounding brain. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists MK-801 and ketamine are(More)
AD, a 45-year-old man, presented with a severe and global anterograde amnesia following surgery for removal of a colloid cyst. Structural neuroimaging confirmed bilateral lesions to the fornix and a small lesion in the basal forebrain. Testing for remote episodic memory of autobiographical events, and for remote semantic memory of personal and public(More)
Microinjections of 2-10 micrograms of carbachol into the mesencephalic reticular formation (MRF) and pontine reticular formation (PRF) of rats consistently induced local electroencephalographic seizures. These seizures had organized, rhythmical patterns and were long lasting. They spread powerfully and bilaterally between the MRF and PRF and also to the(More)
According to the Leeds scale for identifying severely head injured patients, death can be predicted with certainty within 12 hours of admission if a patient has a score higher than 13. The withdrawal of treatment from such patients has considerable moral and legal implications. Therefore, to test the reliability of the Leeds scale, it was applied to two(More)