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Several highly attenuated spore-forming nontoxinogenic and nonencapsulated Bacillus anthracis vaccines differing in levels of expression of recombinant protective antigen (rPA) were constructed. Biochemical analyses (including electrospray mass spectroscopy and N terminus amino acid sequencing) as well as biological and immunological tests demonstrated that(More)
The most aggressive form of anthrax results from inhalation of airborne spores of Bacillus anthracis and usually progresses unnoticed in the early stages because of unspecific symptoms. The only reliable marker of anthrax is development of bacteremia, which increases with disease progress. Rapid diagnosis of anthrax is imperative for efficient treatment and(More)
Genetic studies were done with Candida albicans CBS 562. Various auxotrophs were isolated following mutagenesis with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. SAG5 (his4C), a stable histidine auxotroph defective in histidinol dehydrogenase activity, was characterized and chosen for further molecular studies. Therefore, the C. albicans HIS4 gene was isolated.(More)
Bacillus anthracis proteins that possess antigenic properties and are able to evoke an immune response were identified by a reductive genomic-serologic screen of a set of in silico-preselected open reading frames (ORFs). The screen included in vitro expression of the selected ORFs by coupled transcription and translation of linear PCR-generated DNA(More)
Vaccination by anthrax protective antigen (PA)-based vaccines requires multiple immunization, underlying the need to develop more efficacious vaccines or alternative vaccination regimens. In spite of the vast use of PA-based vaccines, the definition of a marker for protective immunity is still lacking. Here we describe studies designed to help define such(More)
The efficiency of postexposure prophylaxis against Bacillus anthracis infection was tested in guinea pigs infected intranasally with either Vollum or strain ATCC 6605 spores (75 times the 50% lethal dose [LD(50)] and 87 times LD(50,) respectively). Starting 24 h postinfection, animals were treated three times per day for 14 days with ciprofloxacin,(More)
The efficacy of passive immunization as a postexposure prophylactic measure for treatment of guinea pigs intranasally infected with Bacillus anthracis spores was evaluated. Antisera directed either against the lethal toxin components (PA or LF) or against a toxinogenic strain (Sterne) were used for this evaluation. All antisera exhibited high enzyme-linked(More)
An attenuated nontoxinogenic nonencapsulated Bacillus anthracis spore vaccine expressing high levels of recombinant mutant protective antigen (PA), which upon subcutaneous immunization provided protection against a lethal B. anthracis challenge, was found to have the potential to serve also as an oral vaccine. Guinea pigs immunized per os with the(More)
The genes encoding for beta-lactamase (bla+) and resistance to metallic ions (cadmium, mercury, lead, arsenate, and arsenite) were located in a 56.2-kilobase plasmid, pZA10, isolated from a clinical strain, Staphylococcus aureus 6344. This strain produced enterotoxin B and enterotoxin C1. Elimination of pZA10 by either sodium dodecyl sulfate or heat(More)
This study investigated the effect of the chitin synthetase inhibitors, the nikkomycins (NZ and NZ+NX), on Candida albicans adhesion to buccal epithelial cells (BECs) in vitro. The effect was expressed in reduced chitin synthetase activity and chitin content of fungal cells. In vitro adhesion assays to BECs of Candida exposed to NZ and NZ+NX revealed(More)