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Several highly attenuated spore-forming nontoxinogenic and nonencapsulated Bacillus anthracis vaccines differing in levels of expression of recombinant protective antigen (rPA) were constructed. Biochemical analyses (including electrospray mass spectroscopy and N terminus amino acid sequencing) as well as biological and immunological tests demonstrated that(More)
The most aggressive form of anthrax results from inhalation of airborne spores of Bacillus anthracis and usually progresses unnoticed in the early stages because of unspecific symptoms. The only reliable marker of anthrax is development of bacteremia, which increases with disease progress. Rapid diagnosis of anthrax is imperative for efficient treatment and(More)
The lethal anthrax disease is caused by spores of the gram-positive Bacillus anthracis, a member of the cereus group of bacilli. Although the disease is very rare in the Western world, development of anthrax countermeasures gains increasing attention due to the potential use of B. anthracis spores as a bio-terror weapon. Protective antigen (PA), the(More)
Bacillus anthracis proteins that possess antigenic properties and are able to evoke an immune response were identified by a reductive genomic-serologic screen of a set of in silico-preselected open reading frames (ORFs). The screen included in vitro expression of the selected ORFs by coupled transcription and translation of linear PCR-generated DNA(More)
Vaccination by anthrax protective antigen (PA)-based vaccines requires multiple immunization, underlying the need to develop more efficacious vaccines or alternative vaccination regimens. In spite of the vast use of PA-based vaccines, the definition of a marker for protective immunity is still lacking. Here we describe studies designed to help define such(More)
Analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) was applied for the characterization of Bacillus anthracis spore biomarkers. B. anthracis spores were extracted under a simple procedure, followed by linear mode analysis, using sinapinic acid as the matrix. Several markers with a mass range of 4-7 kDa(More)
The efficacy of passive immunization as a postexposure prophylactic measure for treatment of guinea pigs intranasally infected with Bacillus anthracis spores was evaluated. Antisera directed either against the lethal toxin components (PA or LF) or against a toxinogenic strain (Sterne) were used for this evaluation. All antisera exhibited high enzyme-linked(More)
Respiratory anthrax, in the absence of early antibiotic treatment, is a fatal disease. This study aimed to test the efficiency of antibiotic therapy in curing infected animals and those sick with anthrax. Postexposure prophylaxis (24 h postinfection [p.i.]) of guinea pigs infected intranasally with Bacillus anthracis Vollum spores with doxycycline,(More)
An attenuated nontoxinogenic nonencapsulated Bacillus anthracis spore vaccine expressing high levels of recombinant mutant protective antigen (PA), which upon subcutaneous immunization provided protection against a lethal B. anthracis challenge, was found to have the potential to serve also as an oral vaccine. Guinea pigs immunized per os with the(More)
Shigella and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) continue to be important causes of diarrheal disease in infants and young children in developing countries and are major etiologic agents of traveler's diarrhea. Since attenuated strains of Shigella have been developed as live oral vaccines against shigellosis, we have adapted these attenuated Shigella(More)