Zeev Altboum

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Vaccination by anthrax protective antigen (PA)-based vaccines requires multiple immunization, underlying the need to develop more efficacious vaccines or alternative vaccination regimens. In spite of the vast use of PA-based vaccines, the definition of a marker for protective immunity is still lacking. Here we describe studies designed to help define such(More)
Several highly attenuated spore-forming nontoxinogenic and nonencapsulated Bacillus anthracis vaccines differing in levels of expression of recombinant protective antigen (rPA) were constructed. Biochemical analyses (including electrospray mass spectroscopy and N terminus amino acid sequencing) as well as biological and immunological tests demonstrated that(More)
The most aggressive form of anthrax results from inhalation of airborne spores of Bacillus anthracis and usually progresses unnoticed in the early stages because of unspecific symptoms. The only reliable marker of anthrax is development of bacteremia, which increases with disease progress. Rapid diagnosis of anthrax is imperative for efficient treatment and(More)
Genetic studies were done with Candida albicans CBS 562. Various auxotrophs were isolated following mutagenesis with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. SAG5 (his4C), a stable histidine auxotroph defective in histidinol dehydrogenase activity, was characterized and chosen for further molecular studies. Therefore, the C. albicans HIS4 gene was isolated.(More)
An attenuated nontoxinogenic nonencapsulated Bacillus anthracis spore vaccine expressing high levels of recombinant mutant protective antigen (PA), which upon subcutaneous immunization provided protection against a lethal B. anthracis challenge, was found to have the potential to serve also as an oral vaccine. Guinea pigs immunized per os with the(More)
The lethal anthrax disease is caused by spores of the gram-positive Bacillus anthracis, a member of the cereus group of bacilli. Although the disease is very rare in the Western world, development of anthrax countermeasures gains increasing attention due to the potential use of B. anthracis spores as a bio-terror weapon. Protective antigen (PA), the(More)
Bacillus anthracis proteins that possess antigenic properties and are able to evoke an immune response were identified by a reductive genomic-serologic screen of a set of in silico-preselected open reading frames (ORFs). The screen included in vitro expression of the selected ORFs by coupled transcription and translation of linear PCR-generated DNA(More)
Hundreds of immune cell types work in coordination to maintain tissue homeostasis. Upon infection, dramatic changes occur with the localization, migration, and proliferation of the immune cells to first alert the body of the danger, confine it to limit spreading, and finally extinguish the threat and bring the tissue back to homeostasis. Since current(More)
The major virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis is the tripartite anthrax toxin, comprising the protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF). The LF of B. anthracis is a metalloprotease that has been shown to play an important role in pathogenicity. Deletion of this gene (lef) in the Sterne strain was reported to dramatically reduce(More)
Correlates between immunological parameters and protection against Bacillus anthracis infection in animals vaccinated with protective antigen (PA)-based vaccines could provide surrogate markers to evaluate the putative protective efficiency of immunization in humans. In previous studies we demonstrated that neutralizing antibody levels serve as correlates(More)