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Dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a common drinking-water contaminant, is hepatocarcinogenic in rats and mice, and is a therapeutic agent used clinically in the management of lactic acidosis. DCA is biotransformed to glyoxylic acid by glutathione-dependent cytosolic enzymes in vitro and is metabolized to glyoxylic acid in vivo. The enzymes that catalyse the(More)
Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) is a common drinking-water contaminant, is hepatocarcinogenic in rats and mice, and is a therapeutic agent used clinically in the management of lactic acidosis. Recent studies show that glutathione transferase Zeta (GSTZ) catalyzes the oxygenation of DCA to glyoxylic acid [Tong et al. (1998) Biochem. J. 331, 371-374]. In the(More)
Methylnaltrexone (MNTX) is a peripherally acting mu-opioid receptor antagonist and is currently indicated for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation in patients with advanced illness who are receiving palliative care, when response to laxative therapy has not been sufficient. Sulfation to MNTX-3-sulfate (M2) and carbonyl reduction to(More)
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has traditionally been considered as an indispensable tool in elucidating structures of metabolites. With the advent of Fourier transform (FT) spectrometers, along with improvements in software and hardware (such as high-field magnets, cryoprobes, versatile pulse sequences, and solvent suppression techniques),(More)
Application of global gene expression analysis in the study of mechanisms of toxicity could provide a more comprehensive interpretation of the molecular basis of drug action. WAY-144122 has pharmacological activity against several targets improving insulin responsiveness and favorably altering lipid profiles. Normal rats treated with suprapharmacological(More)
Methylnaltrexone (MNTX), a selective mu-opioid receptor antagonist, functions as a peripherally acting receptor antagonist in tissues of the gastrointestinal tract. This report describes the metabolic fate of [(3)H]MNTX or [(14)C]MNTX bromide in mice, rats, dogs, and humans after intravenous administration. Separation and identification of plasma and(More)
Human subjects were exposed by inhalation to 250, 500, and 1000 ppm 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane (HCFC-141b) for 4 hr, and urine samples were collected from 0-4, 4-12, and 12-24 hr for metabolite analysis. 19F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis of urine samples from exposed subjects showed that 2,2-dichloro-2-fluoroethyl glucuronide and(More)
Vabicaserin is a potent 5-hydroxtryptamine 2C full agonist with therapeutic potential for a wide array of psychiatric disorders. Metabolite profiles indicated that vabicaserin was extensively metabolized via carbamoyl glucuronidation after oral administration in humans. In the present study, the differences in the extent of vabicaserin carbamoyl glucuronide(More)
2-(Fluoromethoxy)-1,1,3,3,3-pentafluoro-1-propene (compound A) is a degradation product of the anesthetic sevoflurane and undergoes cysteine conjugate beta-lyase-dependent bioactivation to nephrotoxic metabolites in rats. The present experiments were designed to identify reactive intermediates formed from(More)
Vabicaserin is a potent 5-hydroxtryptamine 2C full agonist with therapeutic potential for a wide array of psychiatric disorders. Metabolite profiles indicated that vabicaserin was extensively metabolized via carbamoyl glucuronidation after oral administration in humans. In the present study, the differences in the extent of vabicaserin carbamoyl glucuronide(More)