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Anal fissure is a common disorder which may cause symptoms at any age. Internal anal sphincterotomy is the gold standard surgical treatment which lowers the resting anal pressure and effectively heals the majority of fissures. However the post operative period may be marked by surgical risks, complications and late incidence of incontinence that is some(More)
Injury to the human body alters normal physiology across several systems and these alterations are proportional to the extent of the injury. Physiological response to minimally invasive surgery appears to be different than those of traditional open surgery. Acute phase protein response appears to be one example. The important cytokines that are known as(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the serum leptin levels in cord blood of Pakistani newborns and to ascertain the relationship between serum leptin and anthropometric parameters i.e. birth weight, length and OFC. STUDY DESIGN A cross-sectional study. PLACE AND DURATION Lady Dufferin Hospital and Ziauddin Hospital, Karachi from 1999 to 2000. PATIENTS AND METHODS(More)
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