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Reconciling reinforcement learning models with behavioral extinction and renewal: implications for addiction, relapse, and problem gambling.
Because learned associations are quickly renewed following extinction, the extinction process must include processes other than unlearning. However, reinforcement learning models, such as theExpand
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Spontaneous Glial Calcium Waves in the Retina Develop over Early Adulthood
Intercellular glial Ca2+ waves constitute a signaling pathway between glial cells. Artificial stimuli have previously been used to evoke these waves, and their physiological significance has beenExpand
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Imaging Retinal Blood Flow with Laser Speckle Flowmetry
Laser speckle flowmetry (LSF) was initially developed to measure blood flow in the retina. More recently, its primary application has been to image baseline blood flow and activity-dependent changesExpand
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Adenosine-Evoked Hyperpolarization of Retinal Ganglion Cells Is Mediated by G-Protein-Coupled Inwardly Rectifying K+ and Small Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channel Activation
Adenosine is a neuromodulator that activates presynaptic receptors to regulate synaptic transmission and postsynaptic receptors to hyperpolarize neurons. Here, we report that adenosine-inducedExpand
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Modeling Decision-Making Systems in Addiction
TLDR
This chapter describes addiction as a failure of decision-making systems. Expand
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Precommitment: A Way around Temptation
Impulsivity means we want things that make us feel good now, and we want to postpone things that take effort. This means that what we want changes— today we want to do the more difficult thingExpand