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Exposure to cigarette smoking cues can trigger physiological arousal and desire to smoke. The brain substrates of smoking cue-induced craving (CIC) are beginning to be elucidated; however, it has been difficult to study this state independent of the potential contributions of pharmacological withdrawal from nicotine. Pharmacological withdrawal itself may(More)
Craving is a hallmark of drug dependence, including dependence on nicotine. Many studies have examined the neural substrates of cravings elicited by smoking-related cues. Less is known about the neural basis of unprovoked, abstinence-induced cravings, despite the contributions of such cravings to smoking relapse. To fill this gap, we used arterial spin(More)
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion fMRI data differ in important respects from the more familiar blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI data and require specific processing strategies. In this paper, we examined several factors that may influence ASL data analysis, including data storage bit resolution, motion correction, preprocessing for cerebral(More)
To explore the multivariate nature of fMRI data and to consider the inter-subject brain response discrepancies, a multivariate and brain response model-free method is fundamentally required. Two such methods are presented in this paper by integrating a machine learning algorithm, the support vector machine (SVM), and the random effect model. Without any(More)
Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies have interpreted longitudinal medication- or behaviorally induced changes observed on T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRIs) as changes in neuronal structure. Although neurogenesis or atrophy certainly occurs, the use of T1-weighted scans to identify change in brain structure in vivo in humans has vulnerability:(More)
Perfusion provides oxygen and nutrients to tissues and is closely tied to tissue function while disorders of perfusion are major sources of medical morbidity and mortality. It has been almost two decades since the use of arterial spin labeling (ASL) for noninvasive perfusion imaging was first reported. While initial ASL magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)(More)
The purpose of this work was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of using an array coil and parallel imaging in continuous arterial spin labeling (CASL) perfusion MRI. An 8-channel receive-only array head coil was used in conjunction with a surrounding detunable volume transmit coil. The signal to noise ratio (SNR), temporal stability, cerebral blood(More)
PURPOSE To assess test-retest stability of four functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-derived resting brain activity metrics: the seed-region-based functional connectivity (SRFC), independent component analysis (ICA)-derived network-based FC (NTFC), regional homogeneity (ReHo), and the amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF). METHODS(More)
Consistent resting brain activity patterns have been repeatedly demonstrated using measures derived from resting BOLD fMRI data. While those metrics are presumed to reflect underlying spontaneous brain activity (SBA), it is challenging to prove that association because resting BOLD fMRI metrics are purely model-free and scale-free variables. Cerebral blood(More)
Single shot 3D GRASE is less sensitive to field inhomogeneity and susceptibility effects than gradient echo based fast imaging sequences while preserving the acquisition speed. In this study, a continuous arterial spin labeling (CASL) pulse was added prior to the single shot 3D GRASE readout and quantitative perfusion measurements were carried out at 3 T,(More)