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Exposure to cigarette smoking cues can trigger physiological arousal and desire to smoke. The brain substrates of smoking cue-induced craving (CIC) are beginning to be elucidated; however, it has been difficult to study this state independent of the potential contributions of pharmacological withdrawal from nicotine. Pharmacological withdrawal itself may(More)
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion fMRI data differ in important respects from the more familiar blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI data and require specific processing strategies. In this paper, we examined several factors that may influence ASL data analysis, including data storage bit resolution, motion correction, preprocessing for cerebral(More)
Craving is a hallmark of drug dependence, including dependence on nicotine. Many studies have examined the neural substrates of cravings elicited by smoking-related cues. Less is known about the neural basis of unprovoked, abstinence-induced cravings, despite the contributions of such cravings to smoking relapse. To fill this gap, we used arterial spin(More)
To explore the multivariate nature of fMRI data and to consider the inter-subject brain response discrepancies, a multivariate and brain response model-free method is fundamentally required. Two such methods are presented in this paper by integrating a machine learning algorithm, the support vector machine (SVM), and the random effect model. Without any(More)
The purpose of this work was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of using an array coil and parallel imaging in continuous arterial spin labeling (CASL) perfusion MRI. An 8-channel receive-only array head coil was used in conjunction with a surrounding detunable volume transmit coil. The signal to noise ratio (SNR), temporal stability, cerebral blood(More)
Memory encoding is a critical brain function subserved by the hippocampus (HP) and mesial temporal lobe (mTL) structures. Visualization of mTL memory activation with BOLD fMRI is complicated by the presence of static susceptibility gradients in this region. Arterial spin labeled (ASL) perfusion fMRI offers an alternative approach not dependent on(More)
The past decade has seen astounding discoveries about resting-state brain activity patterns in normal brain as well as their alterations in brain diseases. While the vast majority of resting-state studies are based on the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI), arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion fMRI can simultaneously capture BOLD(More)
BACKGROUND The human brain responds to recognizable signals for sex and for rewarding drugs of abuse by activation of limbic reward circuitry. Does the brain respond in similar way to such reward signals even when they are "unseen", i.e., presented in a way that prevents their conscious recognition? Can the brain response to "unseen" reward cues predict the(More)
CONTEXT Varenicline, an effective smoking cessation medication, functions as an α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist. It indirectly affects the dopaminergic reward system by reducing withdrawal symptoms during abstinence and by decreasing the reinforcement received from nicotine while smoking. We hypothesize that varenicline would have a(More)
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) can be implemented by combining different labeling schemes and readout sequences. In this study, the performance of 2D and 3D single-shot pulsed-continuous ASL (pCASL) sequences was assessed in a group of young healthy volunteers undergoing a baseline perfusion and a functional study with a sensory-motor activation paradigm. The(More)