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Craving is a hallmark of drug dependence, including dependence on nicotine. Many studies have examined the neural substrates of cravings elicited by smoking-related cues. Less is known about the neural basis of unprovoked, abstinence-induced cravings, despite the contributions of such cravings to smoking relapse. To fill this gap, we used arterial spin(More)
Exposure to cigarette smoking cues can trigger physiological arousal and desire to smoke. The brain substrates of smoking cue-induced craving (CIC) are beginning to be elucidated; however, it has been difficult to study this state independent of the potential contributions of pharmacological withdrawal from nicotine. Pharmacological withdrawal itself may(More)
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion fMRI data differ in important respects from the more familiar blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI data and require specific processing strategies. In this paper, we examined several factors that may influence ASL data analysis, including data storage bit resolution, motion correction, preprocessing for cerebral(More)
To explore the multivariate nature of fMRI data and to consider the inter-subject brain response discrepancies, a multivariate and brain response model-free method is fundamentally required. Two such methods are presented in this paper by integrating a machine learning algorithm, the support vector machine (SVM), and the random effect model. Without any(More)
The purpose of this work was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of using an array coil and parallel imaging in continuous arterial spin labeling (CASL) perfusion MRI. An 8-channel receive-only array head coil was used in conjunction with a surrounding detunable volume transmit coil. The signal to noise ratio (SNR), temporal stability, cerebral blood(More)
CONTEXT Varenicline, an effective smoking cessation medication, functions as an α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist. It indirectly affects the dopaminergic reward system by reducing withdrawal symptoms during abstinence and by decreasing the reinforcement received from nicotine while smoking. We hypothesize that varenicline would have a(More)
There is growing recognition of an interaction between cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer's disease, but the mechanisms of this interaction remain poorly understood. While macroscopic stroke can clearly produce cognitive deficits and accelerate Alzheimer's disease, the prevalence and implications of microvascular disease in Alzheimer's disease(More)
Single shot 3D GRASE is less sensitive to field inhomogeneity and susceptibility effects than gradient echo based fast imaging sequences while preserving the acquisition speed. In this study, a continuous arterial spin labeling (CASL) pulse was added prior to the single shot 3D GRASE readout and quantitative perfusion measurements were carried out at 3 T,(More)
Memory encoding is a critical brain function subserved by the hippocampus (HP) and mesial temporal lobe (mTL) structures. Visualization of mTL memory activation with BOLD fMRI is complicated by the presence of static susceptibility gradients in this region. Arterial spin labeled (ASL) perfusion fMRI offers an alternative approach not dependent on(More)
We examined differences in cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured by Arterial Spin Labeled perfusion MRI (ASL MRI) across the continuum from cognitively normal (CN) older adults to mild Alzheimer's Disease (AD) using data from the multi-site Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Measures of CBF, in a predetermined set of regions (meta-ROI), and(More)