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Microinjections of the cholinergic agonists, carbachol and bethanechol, either into the amygdala or into the dorsal hippocampus produced sustained limbic seizures and brain damage in rats. Systemic administration of pilocarpine in rats resulted in a sequence of convulsive disorders and widespread brain damage as well. Scopolamine prevented the development(More)
The present results refer to the action of three gonadal steroid antihormones, tamoxifen (TXF, an estrogen antagonist), cyproterone acetate (CYP, an antiandrogen) and mifepristone (MIF, a progesterone antagonist) on seizure phenomena in mice. TXF and CYP at their lowest protective dose in the electroconvulsive threshold test, enhanced the antiseizure(More)
The effects of three gonadal steroid antihormones, tamoxifen (TXF, an estrogen antagonist), cyproterone acetate (CYP, an antiandrogen) and mifepristone (MIF, a progesterone antagonist) alone or combined with conventional antiepileptics were evaluated in amygdala-kindled seizures in male and female rats. None of the three antihormones used in this study(More)
Endogenous histamine has been reported to be involved in regulation of seizure susceptibility. Enhancement of histamine neurotransmission engendered by L-histidine treatment produces anticonvulsant effects in experimental animals. The present study investigated the influence of L-histidine on the protective effects of carbamazepine and phenytoin against(More)
Excitatory amino acid antagonists possess anticonvulsant properties in many experimental models of epilepsy and were shown to potentiate the protective activity of conventional antiepileptics against maximal electroshock-induced seizures in mice. Combined treatments of valproate with either D,L-(E)-2-amino-4-methyl-5-phosphono-3-pentenoic acid or(More)
The interaction of 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, with the protective activity of conventional antiepileptics against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures was tested in mice. Alone, 7-nitroindazole (up to 50 mg/kg) was ineffective in this model of experimental epilepsy. However, it potentiated the anticonvulsive(More)
Nitric oxide may be involved in seizure phenomena even though data often seem to be contradictory. This prompted us to study the influence of nitric oxide upon electrically and chemically induced seizures. The effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine (NNA), on pentylenetetrazol-, aminooxyacetic acid-, aminophylline-induced seizures or(More)
Procyclidine (up to 20mg/kg i.p.) did not influence the electroconvulsive threshold per se, but when given in a dose of 10mg/kg, it potentiated the protective activity of carbamazepine, diphenylhydantoin, phenobarbital and valproate, and in a dose of 20 mg/kg, that of diazepam against maximal electroshock-induced convulsions in mice. Ifenprodil increased(More)
The intracerebroventricular administration of carbachol chloride induced a characteristic wet dog shake response in rats. Neither 5,6-dihydroxytryptamine, a serotonergic depletor, nor dl-p-chlorophenylalanine, an inhibitor of 5-HT synthesis, affected wet dog shakes induced by carbachol. Putative antiserotonergic drugs such as cyproheptadine, danitracen and(More)
NG-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, an unspecific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), applied at 1 and 40 mg/kg, did not influence the electroconvulsive threshold, but impaired the anticonvulsant activity of valproate (at 40 mg/kg) and phenobarbital (at 1 and 40 mg/kg). No effect was observed in the case of carbamazepine and diphenylhydantoin. The(More)