Zdeněk Hubálek

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West Nile virus causes sporadic cases and outbreaks of human and equine disease in Europe (western Mediterranean and southern Russia in 1962-64, Belarus and Ukraine in the 1970s and 1980s, Romania in 1996-97, Czechland in 1997, and Italy in 1998). Environmental factors, including human activities, that enhance population densities of vector mosquitoes(More)
In the last 30 years several cases of West Nile (WN) virus infection were reported in horses and humans in Europe and in the Mediterranean Basin. Most of them were determined by strains of the Lineage 1 included in the European Mediterranean/Kenyan cluster. Strains of this cluster are characterised by a moderate pathogenicity for horses and humans and(More)
The cryoprotective additives (CPAs) used in the frozen storage of microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi, algae, and protozoa) include a variety of simple and more complex chemical compounds, but only a few of them have been used widely and with satisfactory results: these include dimethylsulfoxide (Me2SO), glycerol, blood serum or serum albumin, skimmed(More)
Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most frequent ixodid tick-borne human disease in the world, with an estimated 85,500 patients annually (underlying data presented in this review: Europe 65,500, North America 16,500, Asia 3,500, North Africa 10; approximate figures). This chapter summarizes the up-to-date knowledge about facts and factors important in the(More)
The number of mosquito-borne viruses (‘moboviruses’) occurring in Europe since the twentieth century now stands at ten; they belong to three families—Togaviridae (Sindbis, Chikungunya), Flaviviridae (West Nile, Usutu, Dengue), and Bunyaviridae (Batai, Ťahyňa, Snowshoe hare, Inkoo, Lednice). Several of them play a definite role in human or animal pathology(More)
Tick-borne diseases represent major public and animal health issues worldwide. Ixodes ricinus, primarily associated with deciduous and mixed forests, is the principal vector of causative agents of viral, bacterial, and protozoan zoonotic diseases in Europe. Recently, abundant tick populations have been observed in European urban green areas, which are of(More)
The potential for transport and dissemination of certain pathogenic microorganisms by migratory birds is of concern. Migratory birds might be involved in dispersal of microorganisms as their biological carriers, mechanical carriers, or as carriers of infected hematophagous ecto-parasites (e.g., ixodid ticks). Many species of microorganisms pathogenic to(More)
Host-seeking Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were detected by flagging method at 46 localities at south-east part of the Czech Republic, in the basins of rivers Morava and Dyje. Exact north-west distribution limits of D. reticulatus were defined in this area for the first time. Detailed prediction map of probabilities of D. reticulatus occurrence was obtained(More)
A serosurvey for West Nile virus (WNV) was carried out in 54 domestic birds (geese and ducks bred on fishponds) and 391 wild birds representing 28 migratory and resident species, using a plaque-reduction neutralization microtest with Vero cells and Egyptian topotype Eg-101 strain as test virus. The birds were sampled in the South-Moravian fishpond ecosystem(More)
Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes have been found in all examined Ixodes ricinus (L.) populations in Europe. The overall mean proportions of unfed I. ricinus infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. were 1.9% (range 0–11%), 10.8% (2–43%) and 17.4% (3–58%) for larvae (n = 5699), nymphs (n = 48 804) and adults (n = 41 666), respectively. However, the(More)