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The present review describes several methods to characterize and differentiate between two different mechanisms of cell death, apoptosis and necrosis. Most of these methods were applied to studies of apoptosis triggered in the human leukemic HL-60 cell line by DNA topoisomerase I or II inhibitors, and in rat thymocytes by either topoisomerase inhibitors or(More)
In cells undergoing apoptosis (programmed cell death), a fraction of nuclear DNA is fragmented to the size equivalent of DNA in mono- or oligonucleosomes. When such DNA is analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis it generates the characteristic "ladder" pattern of discontinuous DNA fragments. Such a pattern of DNA degradation generally serves as a marker of(More)
Flow cytometry of heated sperm nuclei revealed a significant decrease in resistance to in situ denaturation of spermatozoal DNA in samples from bulls, mice, and humans of low or questionable fertility when compared with others of high fertility. Since thermal denaturation of DNA in situ depends on chromatin structure, it is assumed that changes in sperm(More)
DNA strand breaks which occur in HL-60 cells as a result of activation of endonuclease during apoptosis induced by cell treatment with the DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin and topoisomerase II inhibitors teniposide, 4'-(9-acridinylamino)-3-methanesulfon-m-anisidide, and fostriecin were labeled in situ, in individual fixed and permeabilized cells,(More)
The term cell necrobiology is introduced to comprise the life processes associated with morphological, biochemical, and molecular changes which predispose, precede, and accompany cell death, as well as the consequences and tissue response to cell death. Two alternative modes of cell death can be distinguished, apoptosis and accidental cell death, generally(More)
The studies were aimed to detect the cell cycle-associated differences in the susceptibility of HL-60 cells to apoptosis induced by diverse agents. Exponentially growing HL-60 cells were treated with the DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin; the DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors teniposide, m-AMSA, Mitoxantrone, or Fostriecin; the presumed tyrosine(More)
Lesions to the mature mammalian central nervous system cause irreversible degeneration, in which neurons have been previously thought to be passive victims. In this study, axon-lesioned adult rat neurons are shown instead to actively degrade themselves through the process of apoptosis: a programmed type of cell death in which the cellular apparatus is(More)
The Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) gene is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of genes. Murine PD-1 mRNA expression has been shown to correlate with activation-induced apoptosis in a mouse T-cell hybridoma cell line and in murine thymocytes. Here we report that expression of the human homolog, hPD-1, seems to correlate with activation of T lymphocytes(More)
Several parameters of stimulation of individual lymphocytes are measured simultaneously by flow-cytofluorometry after differential staining of cellular DNA and RNA with the metachromatic fluorescent dye acridine orange. The method provides a means of analyzing the progression of stimulated cells through the cell cycle (G1, S and G2 + M), in addition to(More)