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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can become potently immunosuppressive through unknown mechanisms. We found that the immunosuppressive function of MSCs is elicited by IFNgamma and the concomitant presence of any of three other proinflammatory cytokines, TNFalpha, IL-1alpha, or IL-1beta. These cytokine combinations provoke the expression of high levels of(More)
Traumatic brain injuries constitute a significant portion of injury resulting from automotive collisions, motorcycle crashes, and sports collisions. Brain injuries not only represent a serious trauma for those involved but also place an enormous burden on society, often exacting a heavy economical, social, and emotional price. Development of intervention(More)
BACKGROUND Inherited mutations in DNA-repair genes such as BRCA2 are associated with increased risks of lethal prostate cancer. Although the prevalence of germline mutations in DNA-repair genes among men with localized prostate cancer who are unselected for family predisposition is insufficient to warrant routine testing, the frequency of such mutations in(More)
Currently, angular acceleration is believed to be more damaging to the brain than linear acceleration, even though both are present in any head impact. In a recent experiment, it was found that a helmeted head sustained the same degree of angular acceleration as the unhelmeted head for the same impact, but its linear acceleration was decreased(More)
Brain tissue architecture consists of a complex network of neurons and vasculature interspersed within a matrix of supporting cells. The role of the relatively stiffer blood vessels on the more compliant brain tissues during rapid loading has not been properly investigated. Two 2-D finite element models of the human head were developed. The basic model(More)
Cell-cell adhesion mediated by ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 is critical for T cell activation and leukocyte recruitment to the inflammation site and, therefore, plays an important role in evoking effective immune responses. However, we found that ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were critical for mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-mediated immunosuppression. When MSCs were cocultured with(More)
PURPOSE Active surveillance is increasingly accepted as a treatment option for favorable-risk prostate cancer. Long-term follow-up has been lacking. In this study, we report the long-term outcome of a large active surveillance protocol in men with favorable-risk prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS In a prospective single-arm cohort study carried out at(More)
The androgen-signaling pathway is critical to the development and progression of prostate cancer and androgen ablation is a mainstay of therapy for this disease. We performed a genome-wide expression analysis of human prostate cancer during androgen ablation therapy to identify genes regulated by androgen and genes differentially expressed after the(More)
 Genome sequences of three Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) strains were compared. The Type and Sidney 81 strains of WSMV from the American Great Plains were closely related, with sequence identities of 97.6% (nucleotide) and 98.7% (amino acid). In contrast, the El Batán 3 strain from central Mexico was divergent, and shared only 79.2–79.3% (nucleotide) and(More)
 A method for producing large numbers of transgenic wheat plants has been developed. With this approach, an average of 9.7% of immature embryo explants were transformed and generated multiple self-fertile, independently transformed plants. No untransformed plants, or escapes, were regenerated. This transformation procedure uses morphogenic calli derived(More)