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Traumatic brain injuries constitute a significant portion of injury resulting from automotive collisions, motorcycle crashes, and sports collisions. Brain injuries not only represent a serious trauma for those involved but also place an enormous burden on society, often exacting a heavy economical, social, and emotional price. Development of intervention(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can become potently immunosuppressive through unknown mechanisms. We found that the immunosuppressive function of MSCs is elicited by IFNgamma and the concomitant presence of any of three other proinflammatory cytokines, TNFalpha, IL-1alpha, or IL-1beta. These cytokine combinations provoke the expression of high levels of(More)
Brain tissue architecture consists of a complex network of neurons and vasculature interspersed within a matrix of supporting cells. The role of the relatively stiffer blood vessels on the more compliant brain tissues during rapid loading has not been properly investigated. Two 2-D finite element models of the human head were developed. The basic model(More)
OBJECTIVE Brain responses from concussive impacts in National Football League football games were simulated by finite element analysis using a detailed anatomic model of the brain and head accelerations from laboratory reconstructions of game impacts. This study compares brain responses with physician determined signs and symptoms of concussion to(More)
Nucleostemin is a nucleolar protein widely expressed in proliferating cells. Nucleostemin is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, and both depletion and overexpression of nucleostemin induce cell cycle arrest through the p53 signaling pathway. Although the presence of p53-independent functions of nucleostemin has been previously suggested, the(More)
Currently, angular acceleration is believed to be more damaging to the brain than linear acceleration, even though both are present in any head impact. In a recent experiment, it was found that a helmeted head sustained the same degree of angular acceleration as the unhelmeted head for the same impact, but its linear acceleration was decreased(More)
Complete validation of any finite element (FE) model of the human brain is very difficult due to the lack of adequate experimental data. However, more animal brain injury data, especially rat data, obtained under well-defined mechanical loading conditions, are available to advance the understanding of the mechanisms of traumatic brain injury. Unfortunately,(More)
BACKGROUND The use of cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells as cellular therapy for myocardial injury has yet to be examined in a large-animal model. METHODS AND RESULTS Immunosuppressed Yorkshire pigs were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: A myocardial infarction group (MI group; distal left anterior descending coronary artery ligation and(More)
This study is aimed to develop a high quality, extensively validated finite element (FE) human head model for enhanced head injury prediction and prevention. The geometry of the model was based on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging scans of an adult male who has the average height and weight of an American. A feature-based multiblock(More)
The pia-arachnoid complex (PAC) covering the brain plays an important role in the mechanical response of the brain due to impact or inertial loading. However, the mechanical properties of the pia-arachnoid complex and its influence on the overall response of the brain have not been well characterized. Consequently, finite element (FE) brain models have(More)