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The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), is a serious pest worldwide that causes significant losses in crops. Unfortunately, genetic resources for the beet armyworm is extremely scarce. To improve these resources we sequenced the transcriptome of S. exigua representing all stages including eggs, 1(st) to 5(th) instar larvae, pupae, male and female(More)
Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is an efficient and widely used technique to monitor gene expression. Housekeeping genes (HKGs) are often empirically selected as the reference genes for data normalization. However, the suitability of HKGs used as the reference genes has been seldom validated. Here, six HKGs were chosen (actin A3,(More)
The Cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily is a large group of ancient proteins with enzymatic activities involved in various physiological processes. The rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, is an important insect pest in rice production. Here, we report the identification and characterization of 77 CYP genes from rice striped stem borer (SSB) through(More)
Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) specifically bind to peptidoglycan and play an important role in the innate immune responses as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Here we identified and characterized two PGRPs (HaPGRP-B and HaPGRP-C) from the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. The comparative analysis indicated that five amino acids which(More)
The genomes and transcriptomes of hundreds of insects have been sequenced. However, insect community lacks an integrated, up-to-date collection of insect gene data. Here, we introduce the first release of InsectBase, available online at http://www.insect-genome.com. The database encompasses 138 insect genomes, 116 insect transcriptomes, 61 insect gene sets,(More)
In the absence of Wnt activation, cytosolic β-catenin is degraded through GSK3/CK1-mediated phosphorylation at the N terminus. Here, we show that, upon Wnt activation, the stability of nuclear β-catenin is regulated via methylation/demethylation. The protein lysine demethylases Kdm2a and Kdm2b regulate the turnover of non-phosphorylated β-catenin(More)
The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is one of the most detrimental pests affecting rice crops. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins has been explored as a means to control this pest, but the potential for C. suppressalis to develop resistance to Bt toxins makes this approach problematic. Few C. suppressalis(More)
BACKGROUND Kruppel-like factors (Klfs) are a family of transcription factors consisting of 17 members in mammals, Klf1-Klf17, which are involved in fundamental cellular physiological procedures, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. However, their functions in embryonic development have been poorly understood. Our previous study has(More)
In faithful Bayesian networks, the Markov blanket of the class attribute is a unique and minimal feature subset for optimal feature selection. However, little attention has been paid to Markov blanket feature selection in a non-faithful environment which widely exists in the real world. To tackle this issue, in this paper, we deal with non-faithful data(More)
Although more than 120 families of short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) have been isolated from the eukaryotic genomes, little is known about SINEs in insects. Here, we characterize three novel SINEs from the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Two of them, HaSE1 and HaSE2, share similar 5' -structure including a tRNA-related region immediately(More)