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The modulation of the transient outward K+ current (Ito) by divalent cations was studied in enzymatically isolated rat ventricular myocytes with the whole cell patch-clamp technique. At holding potentials negative to -70 mV, 1 mM Cd2+ suppressed Ito, whereas, at potentials positive to -50 mV, the current was augmented. These effects were caused by shifts in(More)
The effect of cytosolic free Mg2+ concentration on the regulation of myocardial function was studied by dialyzing isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes with different internal Mg2+ concentrations [( Mg2+]i). We found that elevation of [Mg2+]i shortened the action potential and suppressed the Ca2+ current. Mean values recorded for action potential(More)
Acid-base disturbances may develop secondary to the changes in renal tubular function and bone dynamics which attend phosphate depletion (PD). This work characterizes the acid-base status of rats fed a low phosphate diet. After 18 days, PD rats had marked calciuria (pair-fed controls: 0.3 +/- 0.2; PD 32.2 +/- 2.5 mueq/h; P less than 0.001), severe(More)
To determine the effects of methyldopa on renal function, clearance studies were performed on hypertensive subjects during sustained steady-state water diuresis. The data reveal an acute fall in glomerular filtration rate and sodium clearance, whereas renal blood flow was unchanged. The antinatriuresis was the result of decreased filtration of sodium and(More)
The effects of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia on renal handling of sodium, calcium, and phosphate were studied in dogs employing the recollection micropuncture technique. Subthreshold sustained hyperglycemia resulted in an isonatric inhibition of proximal tubular sodium, fluid, calcium, and phosphate reabsorption by 8-14%. Fractional excretion of sodium(More)
The components of calcium and magnesium balance and the factors responsible for the maintenance of the serum concentration of these cations are reviewed. Within this framework, the causes and treatment of disturbances of the serum concentration are discussed. Hypercalcemia is usually a reflection of increased bone resorption and/or gut absorption with the(More)
Four patients with chronic illnesses and stable hyponatremia and plasma hypotonicity had normal urinary diluting capacity, with excretion of greater than 80% of a standard water load (20 ml/kg) within 4 hours and maintenance of a urine osmolality less than 100 mosmol/kg, during sustained water diuresis. Administration of a chronic salt load did not correct(More)
Intracellular magnesium is an important modulator of calcium and potassium channels in cardiac myocytes. Hypomagnesemia is common in hospitalized patients and may contribute significantly to cardiac morbidity and mortality, particularly in states associated with myocardial ischemia. Therefore, it is important to maintain the plasma magnesium concentration(More)
Magnesium is an important constituent of the intracellular space that affects a number of intracellular and whole body functions. Magnesium balance depends on intake and renal excretion, which is regulated mainly in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. The complex hormonal modulation that responds to changes in plasma concentration of other ions(More)