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In this paper we have reviewed the literature on Conditioned Taste Aversion (CTA) with specific attention to the "apparent paradox" in this literature. This paradox refers to the fact that drugs which are self-administered (SA) by animals and are therefore presumed to possess positive reinforcing properties are also endowed with the capacity to induce a(More)
Several reports in the literature suggested that environmental influences which are reflected in the social housing conditions of the rat may play a role in the expression of individual differences in drug self-administration. The present experiments were performed in order to further examine the effects of early housing manipulations, as reflected by(More)
In studies designed to further examine the previously reported involvement of catalase in ethanol-induced effects, we attempted to confirm earlier observations by using normal (C3H-N) and acatalasemic (C3H-A) mice. These mice are identical in every respect and differ only in their catalase activity. Data suggested that the application of(More)
Research has suggested that catalase plays a role in mediating ethanol's psychopharmacological effects. It has been shown that acatalasemic (C3H-A) mice differing in the activity of this enzyme consume larger amounts of ethanol. It has also been reported that when catalase activity is pharmacologically reduced, via 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT), rats reduce(More)
The purpose of the present investigation was to further study the relationship between ethanol and brain catalase in vivo. Rats were pretreated intraperitoneally (ip) with varying doses of ethanol or saline 30 min prior to administration of cyanamide (0.68 mmol/kg; ip), 4-hydroxypyrazole (1 mmol/kg; ip) or saline. Rat tissues were perfused in situ under(More)
In the present investigation we questioned whether taurine antagonized the effects of ethanol on motor activity measured in the open field. Ten minutes following simultaneous administration (IP) of ethanol (1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 g/kg) or saline and taurine (30, 45 and 60 mg/kg) or saline, mice were placed in open field chambers and locomotor activity was(More)
The present study investigated the possibility of environmental factors as an explanation for between-subject differences in cocaine self-administration. Weaning rats (21 days) were housed in isolated or aggregated conditions for 6 weeks and were tested for intravenous cocaine self-administration (0.1-1.0 mg/kg/infusion). Rats housed in groups failed to(More)
The study addressed two issues. First, we examined the effectiveness of heroin as a conditioning agent in a preferred environment using a place preference paradigm. Four daily injections of 80 micrograms/kg (SC) of heroin HCl were paired with environments that rats initially found to be either preferred or non-preferred. In subsequent tests, only those that(More)
 Observations in humans suggest that the initial use of tobacco occurs in close temporal proximity to experimentation with alcohol. There have been relatively few research reports, however, examining possible interactions between these two agents. The present experiments examined the effect of nicotine exposure on the acquisition of ethanol drinking(More)
The effects of THIP (GABAA agonist) and picrotoxin (GABA antagonist) on the maintenance of voluntary ethanol ingestion were examined. Thirty-three male Long-Evans rats were initially exposed to a screening procedure in which increasing concentrations of ethanol (from 2% to 9%) were presented in a free choice with water, on an alternate day schedule.(More)