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Genome endoreduplication during mammalian development is a rare event for which the mechanism is unknown. It first appears when fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4) deprivation induces differentiation of trophoblast stem (TS) cells into the nonproliferating trophoblast giant (TG) cells required for embryo implantation. Here we show that RO3306 inhibition of(More)
Trophoblast stem (TS) cells proliferate in the presence of fibroblast growth factor 4, but in its absence, they differentiate into polyploid trophoblast giant (TG) cells that remain viable but nonproliferative. Differentiation is coincident with expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-specific inhibitors p21 and p57, of which p57 is essential for(More)
Proliferating trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) can differentiate into nonproliferating but viable trophoblast giant cells (TGCs) that are resistant to DNA damage induced apoptosis. Differentiation is associated with selective up-regulation of the Cip/Kip cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p57 and p21; expression of p27 remains constant. Previous studies showed(More)
 Sources of resistance to several potyviruses have been identified and characterized within the cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) germplasm. Resistance to zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is present in inbred lines derived from the Dutch hybrid Dina (Dina-1) and from the Chinese cultivar ‘Taichung Mou Gua’ (TMG-1). Tests of allelism indicated that the genes(More)
Development of a fertilized egg into an adult human requires trillions of cell divisions, the vast majority of which duplicate their genome once and only once. Nevertheless, trophoblast giant cells and megakaryocytes in mammals circumvent this rule by duplicating their genome multiple times without undergoing cell division, a process generally referred to(More)
This study describes the extraction, fractionation and antibacterial activity of Phyla nodiflora. The plant crude extract and all sub fractions (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous) were subjected to antibacterial activities. For antibacterial activities seven bacterial strains Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella(More)
In the wake of smokeless tobacco (SLT) being advocated as a mean of tobacco harm reduction, it is pertinent to establish individual health risks associated with each SLT product. This case-control study was aimed at assessing the risk of oral cancer associated with a smokeless tobacco product (Naswar). The study was conducted from September 2014 till May(More)
Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) play a central role in the orderly transition from one phase of the eukaryotic mitotic cell division cycle to the next. In this context, p27Kip1 (one of the CIP/KIP family of CDK specific inhibitors in mammals) or its functional analogue in other eukarya prevents a premature transition from G1 to S-phase. Recent studies have(More)
Development of a fertilized human egg into an average sized adult requires about 29 trillion cell divisions, thereby producing enough DNA to stretch to the Sun and back 200 times (DePamphilis and Bell, 2011)! Even more amazing is the fact that throughout these mitotic cell cycles, the human genome is duplicated once and only once each time a cell divides.(More)
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