Zainab Moazzam

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Posterior Tibial Nerve Stimulation (PTNS) is a minimally invasive yet effective therapy for treating overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms with electrical stimulations applied at 20 Hz coupled with amplitudes approximating the foot-twitch threshold (T). However, pre-clinical studies indicate that PTNS-evoked bladder reflexes require stimulation amplitudes(More)
PURPOSE Tibial nerve stimulation is a minimally invasive neuromodulation treatment of overactive bladder. However, in addition to our limited understanding of the underlying mechanisms, there are also questions regarding the long-term delivery of tibial nerve stimulation therapy in patients. We aimed to characterize the effects of stimulation frequency(More)
Posterior Tibial Nerve Stimulation (PTNS) is an effective overactive bladder (OAB) therapy where electrical pulses are typically delivered once per week in a 12-week stimulation regime. While the mechanism of action remains unknown, effective long-term delivery of PTNS has recently become a subject of concern. To this end, a multi-contact electrode was(More)
OBJECTIVE Implant-driven tibial nerve stimulation therapy is an effective technique for treating overactive bladder. However, the monopolar lead design in the currently available implantable devices pose long-term therapeutic challenges in terms of efficiently and selectively delivering electrical pulses to the target. Hence, the purpose of this study was(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). ROS such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide are overproduced by activated macrophages in RA. As scavengers of ROS, enzymatic proteins such as catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) have a great therapeutic potential; however, in vivo application is(More)
AIMS Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) is an effective neuromodulation therapy for treating overactive bladder (OAB). The therapeutic effects are achieved by repeatedly applying electrical stimulation through a percutaneous needle electrode that is used to target the tibial nerve (TN). Anatomical studies indicate there can be multiple saphenous(More)
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