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AIMS To compare the assessment of steroid hormone receptor immunohistochemistry by eye and by computer-aided image analysis, and to examine their relationships with survival in breast cancer. METHODS AND RESULTS Allred scores and weighted histoscores for oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) immunohistochemistry were determined by eye(More)
Although the first studies highlighting the importance of the tumour inflammatory cell infiltrate were reported more than 80 years ago, the prognostic value of this response in breast cancer is still controversial. With the realisation of the importance of the inflammatory response in determining tumour progression there has been renewed interest in(More)
AIMS To compare visual and computerized image analysis of HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) with fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) for HER2 status, and to examine the relationships with outcome in patients with primary operable invasive ductal breast cancer. METHODS AND RESULTS Tissue microarrays for 431 breast cancer patients were used to compare(More)
BACKGROUND There is increasing evidence that the local and systemic inflammatory responses are associated with survival in oesophageal cancer. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between tumour necrosis, tumour proliferation, local and systemic inflammation and microvessel density and survival in patients undergoing potentially curative(More)
Lymphovascular invasion (LBVI) has long been recognized as an essential step of metastases in patients with cancer. However, the process of invasion into lymphatic and blood vessels is still not well defined in breast cancer. To examine the evidence for LBVI, lymphatic vessel invasion (LVI) and blood vessel invasion (BVI) in predicting survival in patients(More)
BACKGROUND Immunohistochemistry of Ki-67 protein is widely used to assess tumour proliferation, and is an established prognostic factor in breast cancer. There is interest in automating the assessment of Ki-67 labelling index (LI) with possible benefits in handling increased workload, with improved accuracy and precision. PATIENTS AND METHODS Visual and(More)
Lymphovascular invasion (LBVI) including lymphatic (LVI) and blood (BVI) vessel invasion is a critical step in cancer metastasis. In breast cancer, the optimal detection method of LBVI remains unclear. This research aimed to compare the prognostic value of different assessments of the LVI and BVI in patients with early breast cancer. The study cohort(More)
BACKGROUND The percentage of tumour stroma (TSP) has recently been reported to be a novel independent predictor of outcome in patients with a variety of common solid organ tumours. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between TSP, clinicopathological characteristics and outcome in patients with invasive ductal breast cancer, in particular(More)
BACKGROUND Tumor necrosis has been proposed as a marker of poor prognosis in a variety of solid organ malignant tumor types. Despite this, its assessment has yet to be adopted into routine clinical practice and the mechanisms underpinning the relationships with cancer outcome are undetermined. AIMS To examine the prognostic value of tumor necrosis in(More)
BACKGROUND The importance of the components of host local inflammatory response in determining outcome in primary operable ductal invasive breast cancer is not clear. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between components of the tumour inflammatory cell infiltrate and standard clinicopathological factors including hormone status (oestrogen(More)