Both pathogen- and tissue damage-associated molecular patterns induce inflammation through toll-like receptors (TLRs), while sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin superfamily lectin receptors (Siglecs) provide negative regulation. Here we report extensive and direct interactions between these pattern recognition receptors. The promiscuous TLR binders were… (More)
Influenza viruses cause seasonal flu each year and pandemics or epidemic sporadically, posing a major threat to public health. Recently, a new influenza D virus (IDV) was isolated from pigs and cattle. Here, we reveal that the IDV utilizes 9-O-acetylated sialic acids as its receptor for virus entry. Then, we determined the crystal structures of… (More)
Copyright: © 2016 Song et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
A series of α2-3-sialylated β1-3-linked galactosides, including sialyl T-antigens, 3'-sialyl galacto-N-biose, 3'-sialyl lacto-N-biose, and their derivatives containing natural and non-natural sialic acid forms have been synthesized from simple monosaccharides using an efficient sequential two-step multienzyme approach.