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Laboratory measurements support a cirrus cloud formation pathway involving heterogeneous ice nucleation by solid ammonium sulfate aerosols. Ice formation occurs at low ice-saturation ratios consistent with the formation of continental cirrus and an interhemispheric asymmetry observed for cloud onset. In a climate model, this mechanism provides a widespread(More)
There is a problem in the spatial and temporal separation between the varying forms of representation used in urban design. Sketches, physical models, and more recently computational simulation, while each serving a useful purpose, tend to be incompatible forms of representation. The contemporary designer is required assimilate these divergent media into a(More)
The University of Toronto continuous flow diffusion chamber (UT-CFDC) was used to study heterogeneous ice nucleation at the International Workshop on Comparing Ice Nucleation Measuring Systems (ICIS 2007) which also represented the 4-th ice nucleation workshop, on 14–28 September 2007. One goal of the workshop was to inter-compare different ice nucleation(More)
Immersion freezing is the most relevant heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanism through which ice crystals are formed in mixed-phase clouds. In recent years, an increasing number of laboratory experiments utilizing a variety of instruments have examined immersion freezing activity of atmospherically relevant ice-nucleating particles. However, an(More)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions This discussion paper is/has been under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in ACP if available. Abstract The University of Toronto continuous flow diffusion chamber (UT-CFDC) was used to study heterogeneous ice nucleation at the(More)
Seven different instruments and measurement methods were used to examine the immersion freezing of bacterial ice nuclei from Snomax ® (hereafter Snomax), a product containing ice-active protein complexes from non-viable Pseudomonas syringae bacteria. The experimental conditions were kept as similar as possible for the different measurements. Of the(More)
This discussion paper is/has been under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in ACP if available. Abstract Seven different instruments and measurement methods were used to examine the immersion freezing of bacterial ice nuclei from Snomax ® (hereafter Snomax), a product containing ice(More)
A measurement campaign (IMBALANCE) conducted in 2009 was aimed at characterizing the physical and chemical properties of freshly emitted and photochemically aged combustion particles emitted from a log wood burner and diesel vehicles: a EURO3 Opel Astra with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) but no particle filter and a EURO2 Volkswagen Transporter TDI(More)
Project Overview Christmas is here, the holy season, the homing season. When everybody is looking forward to going back home, we're honored to present this game; we are bringing you the homing feeling right here right now. Let's try our best to build up a road back home together, and make this home dream come true. Everyone is welcome to play on our newly(More)