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The 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza pandemic demonstrated the global health threat of reassortant influenza strains. Herein, we report a detailed analysis of plasmablast and monoclonal antibody responses induced by pandemic H1N1 infection in humans. Unlike antibodies elicited by annual influenza vaccinations, most neutralizing antibodies induced by pandemic(More)
Although phosphoantigen-specific Vgamma2Vdelta2 T cells appear to play a role in antimicrobial and anticancer immunity, mucosal immune responses and effector functions of these gammadelta T cells during infection or phospholigand treatment remain poorly characterized. In this study, we demonstrate that the microbial phosphoantigen(More)
Nanoscale imaging of an in vivo antigen-specific T-cell immune response has not been reported. Here, the combined near-field scanning optical microscopy- and fluorescent quantum dot-based nanotechnology was used to perform immunofluorescence imaging of antigen-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) response in an in vivo model of clonal T-cell expansion. The(More)
Vgamma2Vdelta2 T cells, a major human gammadelta T cell subset, recognize the phosphoantigen (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMBPP) produced by mycobacteria and some opportunistic pathogens, and they contribute to innate/adaptive/homeostatic and anticancer immunity. As initial efforts to explore Vgamma2Vdelta2 T cell-based therapeutics(More)
BACKGROUND Malaria and AIDS represent 2 leading causes of death from infectious diseases worldwide, and their high geographic overlap means coinfection is prevalent. It remains unknown whether distinct immune responses during coinfection with malaria and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) affect clinical outcomes. METHODS We tested this hypothesis by(More)
The possibility that Vgamma2Vdelta2 T effector cells can confer protection against pulmonary infectious diseases has not been tested. We have recently demonstrated that single-dose (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMBPP) plus IL-2 treatment can induce prolonged accumulation of Vgamma2Vdelta2 T effector cells in lungs. Here, we show that a(More)
Nanoscale imaging of an in vivo antigen-specific T cell immune response has not been reported. Here, the combined NSOMand fluorescent QD-based nanotechnology was employed to perform immune-fluorescence imaging of antigen-specific TCR response in an in vivo model of clonal T cell expansion. The NSOM/QD system provided a bestoptical-resolution nanoscale(More)
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