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The p21-activated kinases (Paks) are serine/threonine protein kinases that bind to and, in some cases, are stimulated by activated forms of the small GTPases, Cdc42 and Rac. With the recent discovery of several novel isoforms, Paks are now categorized into two subgroups based on architectural similarities. The Group I Paks (Pak1, Pak2, Pak3) have been(More)
The canonical extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling cascade, consisting of the Ras-Raf-Mek-ERK module, is critically important to many cellular functions. Although the general mechanism of activation of the ERK cascade is well established, additional noncanonical components greatly influence the activity of this pathway. Here, we focus on the group(More)
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common genetic disorder caused by mutations in the NF1 locus, which encodes neurofibromin, a negative regulator of Ras. Patients with NF1 develop numerous neurofibromas, which contain many inflammatory mast cells that contribute to tumor formation. Subsequent to c-Kit stimulation, signaling from Ras to Rac1/2 to the MAPK(More)
Rho guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) are critical regulators of cytoskeletal dynamics and control complex functions such as cell adhesion, spreading, migration, and cell division. It is generally accepted that localized GTPase activation is required for the proper initiation of downstream signaling events, although the molecular mechanisms that control(More)
The RAS genes are the most commonly mutated oncogenes in human cancer and present a particular therapeutic dilemma, as direct targeting of Ras proteins by small molecules has proved difficult. Signaling pathways downstream of Ras, in particular Raf/Mek/Erk and PI3K/Akt/mTOR, are dominated by lipid and protein kinases that provide attractive alternate(More)
PURPOSE The growth and survival of neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2)-deficient cells are enhanced by the activation of multiple signaling pathways including ErbBs/IGF-1R/Met, PI3K/Akt, and Ras/Raf/Mek/Erk1/2. The chaperone protein HSP90 is essential for the stabilization of these signaling molecules. The aim of the study was to characterize the effect of HSP90(More)
Pak5 is the most recently identified and least understood member of the p21-activated kinase (Pak) family. This kinase is known to promote neurite outgrowth in vitro, but its localization, substrates, and effects on cell survival have not been reported. We show here that Pak5 has unique properties that distinguish it from all other members of the Pak(More)
Akt/PKB is a critical regulator of cardiac function and morphology, and its activity is governed by dual phosphorylation at active loop (Thr308) by phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) and at carboxyl-terminal hydrophobic motif (Ser473) by a putative PDK2. P21-activated kinase-1 (Pak1) is a serine/threonine protein kinase implicated in the(More)
p21-activated kinases (PAKs) regulate many cellular processes, including cytoskeletal rearrangement and cell migration. In this study, we report a direct and specific interaction of PAK1 with a 22-kD Ca2+-binding protein, CIB1, which results in PAK1 activation both in vitro and in vivo. CIB1 binds to PAK1 within discrete regions surrounding the inhibitory(More)