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Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) procedures are being widely applied in therapeutic and investigative studies. Numerous studies have investigated the effects of rTMS on cortical excitability and inhibition, yielding somewhat contradictory results. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively review this literature to guide the(More)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation can be used to non-invasively study inhibitory processes in the human motor cortex. Interhemispheric inhibition can be measured by applying a conditioning stimulus to the motor cortex resulting in inhibition of the contralateral motor cortex. Transcranial magnetic stimulation can also be used to demonstrate ipsilateral(More)
Animal studies have shown that cerebellar projections influence both excitatory and inhibitory neurones in the motor cortex but this connectivity has yet to be demonstrated in human subjects. In human subjects, magnetic or electrical stimulation of the cerebellum 5-7 ms before transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex decreases the(More)
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a brain stimulation technique that has the potential to improve working memory (WM) deficits in many clinical disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of current strength on the ability of anodal tDCS to improve WM, and secondly to investigate the time course of effects. Twelve healthy(More)
BACKGROUND Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been found to improve working memory (WM) performance in both healthy and clinical participants. However, whether this effect can be enhanced by cognitive activity undertaken during tDCS has not yet been explored. OBJECTIVE This study(More)
BACKGROUND The neurobiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is not particularly well understood, and biomedical treatment approaches are therefore extremely limited. A prominent explanatory model suggests that social-relating symptoms may arise from dysfunction within the mirror neuron system, while a recent neuroimaging study suggests that these(More)
BACKGROUND Cortical inhibition (CI) deficits have been proposed as a pathophysiologic mechanism in schizophrenia. This study employed 3 transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigms to assess CI in patients with schizophrenia. Paired-pulse TMS involves stimulating with a lower-intensity pulse a few milliseconds before a higher-intensity pulse, thereby(More)
Several studies have demonstrated that cortical inhibition (CI) can be recorded by paired transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex and recorded by surface electromyography (EMG). However, recording CI from other cortical regions that are more closely associated with the pathophysiology of some neurological and psychiatric disorders (eg,(More)
Long-interval cortical inhibition (LICI) refers to suppression of neuronal activity following paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with interstimulus intervals (ISIs) between 50 and 200 ms. LICI can be measured either from motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in small hand muscles or directly from the cortex using concurrent electroencephalography(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to determine if working memory (WM) performance is significantly improved after the delivery of transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), compared to an active comparator or sham. METHODS Ten participants undertook three experimental sessions in which they received(More)