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An image sensor network platform is developed for testing transmission of images over ZigBee networks that support multi-hopping. The ZigBee is a low rate and low power networking technology for short range communications, and it currently uses IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and PHY layers. Both ZigBee networking (NWK) and IEEE 802.15.4 MAC layer protocols are(More)
This paper studies efficient and simple data broadcast in IEEE 802.15.4 based ad hoc networks (e.g., ZigBee). Since finding the minimum number of rebroadcast nodes in general ad hoc networks is NP-hard, current broadcast protocols either employ heuristic algorithms or assume extra knowledge such as position or two-hop neighbor table. However the ZigBee(More)
In this letter, a threshold selection technique for time of arrival estimation of ultra-wideband signals is proposed. It exploits the Kurtosis of the received signal samples. The dependency between the Kurtosis and optimal normalized threshold are investigated via simulations. The proposed technique yields efficient threshold selections, has low complexity(More)
A common technique for wireless positioning is to estimate time-of-arrivals (TOAs) of signals traveling between a target node and a number of reference nodes, and then to determine the position of the target node based on those TOA parameters. In determining the position of the target node from TOA parameters, linear or nonlinear least-squares (LS)(More)
High time resolution of ultra wideband (UWB) signals facilitates very precise positioning capabilities based on time-of-arrival (TOA) measurements. Although the theoretical lower bound for TOA estimation can be achieved by the maximum likelihood principle, it is impractical due to the need for extremely high-rate sampling and the presence of large number of(More)
— In this paper, Cramer-Rao lower bounds (CRLBs) for estimation of vital signal parameters, such as respiration and heartbeat rates, using ultra-wideband (UWB) pulses are derived. In addition, a simple closed-form CRLB expression is obtained for sinusoidal displacement functions under certain conditions. Moreover, a two-step suboptimal solution is proposed,(More)
In this paper, theoretical lower bounds on performance of linear least-squares (LLS) position estimators are obtained, and performance differences between LLS and nonlinear least-squares (NLS) position estimators are quantified. In addition, two techniques are proposed in order to improve the performance of the LLS approach. First, a reference selection(More)
Industrial sensing, monitoring and automation offer a lucrative application domain for networking and communications. Wired sensor networks have traditionally been used for these applications because such networks adequately meet two vital requirements, i.e., low latency and high reliability, needed for an industrial deployment. Wired sensor networks,(More)