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Astrocytes are macroglial cells that have a crucial role in development of the retinal vasculature and maintenance of the blood-retina-barrier (BRB). Diabetes affects the physiology and function of retinal vascular cells including astrocytes (AC) leading to breakdown of BRB. However, the detailed cellular mechanisms leading to retinal AC dysfunction under(More)
OBJECTIVE Arachidonic acid is metabolized by 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) to 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) and has an important role in the regulation of angiogenesis and endothelial cell proliferation and migration. The goal of this study was to investigate whether 12-LOX plays a role in retinal neovascularization (NV). RESEARCH DESIGN AND(More)
PURPOSE Hyperglycemia activates several metabolic pathways, including the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. Uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) is the product of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway and the substrate for O-linked GlcNAc (O-GlcNAc) modification. This modification affects a wide range of proteins by altering their activity,(More)
Hyperglycemia impacts different vascular cell functions and promotes the development and progression of various vasculopathies including diabetic retinopathy. Although the increased rate of apoptosis in pericytes (PCs) has been linked to increased oxidative stress and activation of protein kinase C-δ (PKC-δ) and SHP-1 (Src homology region 2(More)
PURPOSE Determine the safe dose of intravitreal propranolol (IVP), and evaluate its inhibitory effect on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV). METHODS To determine the IVP safe dose, 32 rabbits were divided into 4 groups. Three of these groups received IVP (15 μL) corresponding to 15 μg (group B), 30 μg (group C), and 60 μg (group D). The(More)
PURPOSE The focus of this study was to determine whether bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) trigger reactive gliosis in retinal astrocytes and/or Müller glial cells. METHODS Retinal astrocytes and the Müller glial cell line MIO-M1 were treated with vehicle, BMP7, or BMP4. Samples from the treated cells were analyzed for changes in gliosis markers using(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate caspase-14 expression in the retina under normal and diabetic conditions, and to determine whether caspase-14 contributes to retinal microvascular cell death under high glucose conditions. METHODS Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were used to evaluate caspase-14(More)
Overproduction of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and beta-amyloid likely contribute to neurodegeneration seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD). APP mRNA contains several, 3'-untranslated region (UTR), cis-acting regulatory elements. A 52 base element (52sce), immediately downstream from the stop codon, has been previously shown to complex with uncharacterized(More)
Hyperglycemia is the primary cause of the majority of diabetes complications, including diabetic retinopathy (DR). Hyperglycemic conditions have a detrimental effect on many tissues and cell types, especially the retinal vascular cells including early loss of pericytes (PC). However, the mechanisms behind this selective sensitivity of retinal PC to(More)