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Surgical care is not uniformly available worldwide. Inequities in surgical care and access may also vary within countries, and the present study aimed to explore these disparities in Pakistan. The National Health Survey of Pakistan was analyzed. The proportion of people with a history of abdominal surgery (AS) was calculated and associated factors were(More)
OBJECTIVES Data on blood lead levels, sources of lead and health effects were reviewed among children in Pakistan. METHODS A systematic review was conducted of published studies found through PubMed, an index of Pakistani medical journals PakMediNet and unpublished reports from governmental and non-governmental agencies in Pakistan. RESULTS With the(More)
Aspects of the social environment, including social conditions (socio-economic status, household situations, chronic illnesses) and social relations (attitude and behaviors of relations) are major determinants of depression among women. This study evaluates the relative power of social relations and social conditions in predicting depression among pregnant(More)
BACKGROUND Cardio-metabolic diseases (CMDs) are a growing public health problem, but data on incidence, trends, and costs in developing countries is scarce. Comprehensive and standardised surveillance for non-communicable diseases was recommended at the United Nations High-level meeting in 2011. AIMS To develop a model surveillance system for CMDs and(More)
BACKGROUND Limited resources, whether public or private, demand prioritisation among competing needs to maximise productivity. With a substantial increase in the number of reported HIV cases, little work has been done to understand how resources have been distributed and what factors may have influenced allocation within the newly introduced Enhanced(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify the strengths and weaknesses of the devolved district health system from the experiences of different stakeholders, and recommend direction for reforms in the existing system. METHODS Using qualitative exploratory design, the study was conducted in 3 cities of the province of Sindh in Pakistan--Karachi, Khairpur and Larkana--from(More)
OBJECTIVE To find the prevalence of HIV infection and risk behaviors among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Karachi, Pakistan. DESIGN A cross-sectional study of IDUs conducted in Karachi, Pakistan from February through June 1996. RESULTS Of the 242 IDUs, 11 (4%) refused HIV testing. One (0.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.37-0.48%) was HIV positive.(More)
A significant proportion of groundwater in south Asia is contaminated with arsenic. Pakistan has low levels of arsenic in groundwater compared with China, Bangladesh and India. A representative multi-stage cluster survey conducted among 3874 persons > or = 15 years of age to determine the prevalence of arsenic skin lesions, its relation with arsenic levels(More)
BACKGROUND National level estimates of injuries are not readily available for developing countries. This study estimated the annual incidence, patterns and severity of unintentional injuries among persons over five years of age in Pakistan. METHODS National Health Survey of Pakistan (NHSP 1990-94) is a nationally representative survey of the household.(More)
National estimates of injuries for children under 5 years based on population representative surveys are not readily available globally and have not been reported for developing countries. This study estimated the annual incidence, pattern and distribution of unintentional injuries according to age, gender, socio-economic status, urban/rural residence and(More)