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Aspects of the social environment, including social conditions (socio-economic status, household situations, chronic illnesses) and social relations (attitude and behaviors of relations) are major determinants of depression among women. This study evaluates the relative power of social relations and social conditions in predicting depression among pregnant(More)
UNLABELLED To assess the acceptability, social and health impacts of improved stoves among women. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2002 among households using improved stoves in the two villages of District Thatta and Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan. A questionnaire was administered to 45 women using improved stoves named Smoke Free Stoves(More)
Surgical care is not uniformly available worldwide. Inequities in surgical care and access may also vary within countries, and the present study aimed to explore these disparities in Pakistan. The National Health Survey of Pakistan was analyzed. The proportion of people with a history of abdominal surgery (AS) was calculated and associated factors were(More)
OBJECTIVES Data on blood lead levels, sources of lead and health effects were reviewed among children in Pakistan. METHODS A systematic review was conducted of published studies found through PubMed, an index of Pakistani medical journals PakMediNet and unpublished reports from governmental and non-governmental agencies in Pakistan. RESULTS With the(More)
OBJECTIVE This study aims to determine the prevalence and significance of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among apparently healthy adults. DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 123 subjects, 56.9% males and 43.1% females, were recruited from a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Questionnaires were administered to gather demographics; height,(More)
BACKGROUND Job dissatisfaction and stress among doctors affect the quality of health care. We assessed the levels of satisfaction for workplace characteristics and job stress among doctors of three teaching hospitals in Karachi. METHODS A postal-survey was conducted between May to June 2002. Satisfaction for workplace characteristics and stress were(More)
BACKGROUND Unsafe injections including reuse of disposable syringe is very common in developing countries including Pakistan. Healthcare providers unnecessarily prescribe injections to patients suggesting that patients ask for injections. We conducted this qualitative study to determine the reasons of overuse of therapeutic injections by the communities in(More)
A public-private mix tuberculosis (TB) DOTS project was implemented to enhance coverage and collaboration between the public and private sectors, with an objective to increase case detection and to improve TB case management in a large urban area. General practitioners (GPs) were trained to provide DOTS services. Patients were diagnosed and treated as per(More)
BACKGROUND National level estimates of injuries are not readily available for developing countries. This study estimated the annual incidence, patterns and severity of unintentional injuries among persons over five years of age in Pakistan. METHODS National Health Survey of Pakistan (NHSP 1990-94) is a nationally representative survey of the household.(More)
A significant proportion of groundwater in south Asia is contaminated with arsenic. Pakistan has low levels of arsenic in groundwater compared with China, Bangladesh and India. A representative multi-stage cluster survey conducted among 3874 persons > or = 15 years of age to determine the prevalence of arsenic skin lesions, its relation with arsenic levels(More)