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OBJECTIVES Data on blood lead levels, sources of lead and health effects were reviewed among children in Pakistan. METHODS A systematic review was conducted of published studies found through PubMed, an index of Pakistani medical journals PakMediNet and unpublished reports from governmental and non-governmental agencies in Pakistan. RESULTS With the(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify the strengths and weaknesses of the devolved district health system from the experiences of different stakeholders, and recommend direction for reforms in the existing system. METHODS Using qualitative exploratory design, the study was conducted in 3 cities of the province of Sindh in Pakistan--Karachi, Khairpur and Larkana--from(More)
OBJECTIVE This study aims to determine the prevalence and significance of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among apparently healthy adults. DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 123 subjects, 56.9% males and 43.1% females, were recruited from a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Questionnaires were administered to gather demographics; height,(More)
BACKGROUND Head and neck cancers are a major cancer burden in Pakistan. They share a common risk factor profile including regular consumption of products of betel, areca and tobacco. Use of paan, chaalia, gutka, niswar and tumbaku is acceptable in Pakistan and is considered a normal cultural practice. This cross-sectional study was carried out to understand(More)
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to identify and measure the risk factors differentiating upper respiratory infection from pneumonia. METHODS The World Health Organization's acute respiratory infection case management criteria were used. We studied 259 cases of pneumonia (cases) and 187 cases of 'cough and cold' (controls) among children under 5 years(More)
BACKGROUND Surgical care is not uniformly available worldwide. Inequities in surgical care and access may also vary within countries, and the present study aimed to explore these disparities in Pakistan. METHODS The National Health Survey of Pakistan was analyzed. The proportion of people with a history of abdominal surgery (AS) was calculated and(More)
A significant proportion of groundwater in south Asia is contaminated with arsenic. Pakistan has low levels of arsenic in groundwater compared with China, Bangladesh and India. A representative multi-stage cluster survey conducted among 3874 persons > or = 15 years of age to determine the prevalence of arsenic skin lesions, its relation with arsenic levels(More)
BACKGROUND Job dissatisfaction and stress among doctors affect the quality of health care. We assessed the levels of satisfaction for workplace characteristics and job stress among doctors of three teaching hospitals in Karachi. METHODS A postal-survey was conducted between May to June 2002. Satisfaction for workplace characteristics and stress were(More)
BACKGROUND National level estimates of injuries are not readily available for developing countries. This study estimated the annual incidence, patterns and severity of unintentional injuries among persons over five years of age in Pakistan. METHODS National Health Survey of Pakistan (NHSP 1990-94) is a nationally representative survey of the household.(More)
BACKGROUND Unsafe injections including reuse of disposable syringe is very common in developing countries including Pakistan. Healthcare providers unnecessarily prescribe injections to patients suggesting that patients ask for injections. We conducted this qualitative study to determine the reasons of overuse of therapeutic injections by the communities in(More)