Zachary R Wagner

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BACKGROUND There is evidence to suggest that antiretroviral therapy (ART) and testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reduce the probability of transmission of HIV. This has led health officials across the United States to take steps toward a test-and-treat policy. However, the extent of the benefits generated by test-and-treat is debatable, and(More)
People are much less likely to engage in risky sexual behavior if they know that they are HIV-positive. Unfortunately, more than 18 percent of people living with HIV/AIDS in the United States are unaware of their HIV status, and about half of new HIV infections are transmitted from that "HIV unaware" population. For these reasons, HIV testing is at the(More)
BACKGROUND  Substantial gaps remain in understanding the trade-offs between the costs and benefits of choosing alternative human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention strategies, including test-and-treat (expanded HIV testing combined with immediate treatment) and PrEP (initiation of preexposure prophylaxis by high-risk uninfected individuals) strategies.(More)
Although diarrheal mortality is cheaply preventable with oral rehydration therapy (ORT), over 700,000 children die of diarrhea annually and many health providers fail to treat diarrheal cases with ORT. Provision of ORT may differ between for-profit and public providers. This study used Demographic and Health Survey data from 19,059 children across 29(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effects of a government insurance program covering tertiary care for people below the poverty line in Karnataka, India, on out-of-pocket expenditures, hospital use, and mortality. DESIGN Geographic regression discontinuity study. SETTING 572 villages in Karnataka, India. PARTICIPANTS 31,476 households (22,796 below poverty(More)
The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has provided billions of US tax dollars to expand HIV treatment, care, and prevention programs in sub-Saharan Africa. This investment has generated significant health gains, but much less is known about PEPFAR's population-level economic effects. We used a difference-in-differences approach to compare(More)
Previous work suggests that activation patterns of neurons in superficial layers of the neocortex are more sensitive to spatial context than activation patterns in deep cortical layers. A possible source of this laminar difference is the distribution of contextual information to the superficial cortical layers carried by hippocampal efferents that travel(More)
We use health insurance claims data from 63 large employers to estimate the extent of price shopping for nine common outpatient services in consumer-directed health plans (CDHPs) compared to traditional health plans. The main measures of price-shopping include: (1) the total price paid on the claim, (2) the share of claims from low and high cost providers(More)
Diarrhea is the second leading cause of child mortality in India. Most deaths are cheaply preventable with the use of oral rehydration salts (ORS), yet many health providers still fail to provide ORS to children seeking diarrheal care. In this study, we use survey data to assess whether children visiting private providers for diarrheal care were less likely(More)
Achievement of the health-related Millennium Development Goals is dependent on increasing take-up of preventive public health services (PHSs) in developing countries. Poor country governments often lack the resources to provide optimal access to preventive services and a great deal of attention is being directed towards the private sector to fill this void.(More)