Zachary R. Shaheen

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Immune cells sense microbial products through Toll-like receptors (TLR), which trigger host defense responses including type 1 interferons (IFNs) secretion. A coding polymorphism in the protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 22 (PTPN22) gene is a susceptibility allele for human autoimmune and infectious disease. We report that Ptpn22 selectively(More)
The expression and production of type 1 interferon is the classic cellular response to virus infection. In addition to this antiviral response, virus infection also stimulates the production of proinflammatory mediators. In this review, the pathways controlling the induction of inflammatory genes and the roles that these inflammatory mediators contribute to(More)
Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) infection of macrophages results in the expression of a number of inflammatory and antiviral genes, including inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. EMCV-induced macrophage activation has been shown to require the presence of CCR5 and the activation of PI3K-dependent signaling cascades. The purpose of this(More)
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