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Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) play an important role in the regulation of mammalian signal transduction. During some cell signaling processes, the generation of endogenous hydrogen peroxide inactivates selected PTPs via oxidation of the enzyme's catalytic cysteine thiolate group. Importantly, low-molecular weight and protein thiols in the cell have(More)
Hydrogen peroxide is a cell signaling agent that inactivates protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) via oxidation of their catalytic cysteine residue. PTPs are inactivated rapidly during H(2)O(2)-mediated cellular signal transduction processes, but, paradoxically, hydrogen peroxide is a rather sluggish PTP inactivator in vitro. Here we present evidence that(More)
Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are important targets of the H(2)O(2) that is produced during mammalian signal transduction. H(2)O(2)-mediated inactivation of PTPs also may be important in various pathophysiological conditions involving oxidative stress. Here we review the chemical and structural biology of redox-regulated PTPs. Reactions of H(2)O(2)(More)
Threats to genomic integrity arising from DNA damage are mitigated by DNA glycosylases, which initiate the base excision repair pathway by locating and excising aberrant nucleobases. How these enzymes find small modifications within the genome is a current area of intensive research. A hallmark of these and other DNA repair enzymes is their use of base(More)
DNA glycosylases protect genomic integrity by locating and excising aberrant nucleobases. Substrate recognition and excision usually take place in an extrahelical conformation, which is often stabilized by π-stacking interactions between the lesion nucleobase and aromatic side chains in the glycosylase active site. Bacillus cereus AlkD is the only DNA(More)
Allyl sulfides are bioactive phytochemicals found in garlic, onion, and other members of the genus Allium. Here we showed that diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide can transfer allyl side chains to low molecular weight thiols. Diallyl monosulfide is inert with respect to this allyl transfer reaction. On the other hand, diallyl sulfone, a known(More)
Redox regulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) involves oxidative conversion of the active site cysteine thiolate into an electrophilic sulfenyl amide residue. Reduction of the sulfenyl amide by biological thiols regenerates the native cysteine residue. Here we explored fundamental chemical reactions that may enable covalent capture of the(More)
Phosphorylation of tyrosine residues is an important posttranslational modification that modulates the function of proteins involved in many important cell signaling pathways. Protein tyrosine kinases and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) work in tandem to control the phosphorylation status of target proteins. Not surprisingly, the activity of some PTPs(More)
Tirapazamine (3-amino-1,2,4-benzotriazine 1,4-dioxide) is a heterocyclic di-N-oxide that undergoes enzymatic deoxygenation selectively in the oxygen-poor (hypoxic) cells found in solid tumors to generate a mono-N-oxide metabolite. This work explored the idea that the electronic changes resulting from the metabolic deoxygenation of tirapazamine analogues(More)