Zachary A. Levine

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Reversible electropermeabilization (electroporation) is widely used to facilitate the introduction of genetic material and pharmaceutical agents into living cells. Although considerable knowledge has been gained from the study of real and simulated model membranes in electric fields, efforts to optimize electroporation protocols are limited by a lack of(More)
Electroporation is the formation of permeabilizing structures in the cell membrane under the influence of an externally imposed electric field. The resulting increased permeability of the membrane enables a wide range of biological applications, including the delivery of normally excluded substances into cells. While electroporation is used extensively in(More)
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of electrophoretic transport of monovalent ions through field-stabilized electropores in POPC lipid bilayers permit systematic characterization of the conductive properties of lipid nanopores. The radius of the electropore can be controlled by the magnitude of the applied sustaining external electric field, which also(More)
Formation of a water bridge across the lipid bilayer is the first stage of pore formation in molecular dynamic (MD) simulations of electroporation, suggesting that the intrusion of individual water molecules into the membrane interior is the initiation event in a sequence that leads to the formation of a conductive membrane pore. To delineate more clearly(More)
Non-thermal probing and stimulation with subnanosecond electric pulses and terahertz electromagnetic radiation may lead to new, minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and to methods for remote monitoring and analysis of biological systems, including plants, animals, and humans. To effectively engineer these still-emerging tools, we need an(More)
Molecular dynamics simulations of electroporation of homogeneous phospholipid bilayers show that the pore creation time is strongly dependent on the magnitude of the applied electric field. Here, we investigated whether heterogeneous bilayers containing phospholipids with zwitterionic and anionic headgroups exhibit a similar dependence. To facilitate this(More)
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