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Electropermeabilization, an electric field-induced modification of the barrier functions of the cell membrane, is widely used in laboratories and increasingly in the clinic; but the mechanisms and physical structures associated with the electromanipulation of membrane permeability have not been definitively characterized. Indirect experimental observations(More)
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of electrophoretic transport of monovalent ions through field-stabilized electropores in POPC lipid bilayers permit systematic characterization of the conductive properties of lipid nanopores. The radius of the electropore can be controlled by the magnitude of the applied sustaining external electric field, which also(More)
Pulsed electric fields are used to permeabilize cell membranes in biotechnology and the clinic. Although molecular and continuum models provide compelling representations of the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, a clear structural link between the biomolecular transformations displayed in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and the micro- and(More)
Reversible electropermeabilization (electroporation) is widely used to facilitate the introduction of genetic material and pharmaceutical agents into living cells. Although considerable knowledge has been gained from the study of real and simulated model membranes in electric fields, efforts to optimize electroporation protocols are limited by a lack of(More)
Molecular dynamics simulations of electroporation of homogeneous phospholipid bilayers show that the pore creation time is strongly dependent on the magnitude of the applied electric field. Here, we investigated whether heterogeneous bilayers containing phospholipids with zwitterionic and anionic headgroups exhibit a similar dependence. To facilitate this(More)
Electroporation is the formation of permeabilizing structures in the cell membrane under the influence of an externally imposed electric field. The resulting increased permeability of the membrane enables a wide range of biological applications, including the delivery of normally excluded substances into cells. While electroporation is used extensively in(More)
Non-thermal probing and stimulation with subnanosecond electric pulses and terahertz electromagnetic radiation may lead to new, minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and to methods for remote monitoring and analysis of biological systems, including plants, animals, and humans. To effectively engineer these still-emerging tools, we need an(More)
Formation of a water bridge across the lipid bilayer is the first stage of pore formation in molecular dynamic (MD) simulations of electroporation, suggesting that the intrusion of individual water molecules into the membrane interior is the initiation event in a sequence that leads to the formation of a conductive membrane pore. To delineate more clearly(More)
Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are a unique class of proteins that have no stable native structure, a feature that allows them to adopt a wide variety of extended and compact conformations that facilitate a large number of vital physiological functions. One of the most well-known IDPs is the microtubule-associated tau protein, which regulates(More)