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In this study we examine the spectral and morphometric properties of the four important lunar mare dome fields near Cauchy, Arago, Hortensius, and Milichius. We utilise Clementine UVVIS multispectral data to examine the soil composition of the mare domes while employing telescopic CCD imagery to compute digital elevation maps in order to determine their(More)
Normal brain function depends on the development of appropriate patterns of neural connections. A critical role in guiding axons to their targets during neural development is played by neuronal growth cones. These have a complex and rapidly changing morphology; however, a quantitative understanding of this morphology, its dynamics and how these are related(More)
Wiring up the nervous system depends on the precise guidance of axonal growth cones to their targets. A key mechanism underlying this guidance is chemotaxis, whereby growth cones detect and follow molecular gradients. Although recent work has uncovered many of the molecules involved in this process, the mechanisms underlying chemotactic axon guidance are(More)
Cell surface proteoglycans are known to be involved in many functions including interactions with components of the extracellular microenvironment and serve to influence cell shape, adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. They also can act as co-receptors, to help bind and modify the action of various growth factors and cytokines. Despite their(More)
Axon guidance by molecular gradients plays a crucial role in wiring up the nervous system. However, the mechanisms axons use to detect gradients are largely unknown. We first develop a Bayesian "ideal observer" analysis of gradient detection by axons, based on the hypothesis that a principal constraint on gradient detection is intrinsic receptor binding(More)
Guidance of axons by molecular gradients is crucial for wiring up the developing nervous system. It often is assumed that the unique signature of such guidance is immediate and biased turning of the axon tip toward or away from the gradient. However, here we show that such turning is not required for guidance. Rather, by a combination of experimental and(More)
The "pipette" or "growth cone turning" assay is widely used for studying how axons respond to diffusible guidance cues in their environment. However, little quantitative analysis has been presented of the gradient shapes produced by this assay, or how they depend on parameters of the assay. Here we used confocal microscopy of fluorescent gradients to(More)
The protein products of the immediate early genes (IEG)s have been proposed to play an important role in long-term tissue plasticity such as cell repair or programmed cell death. The expression of liver IEGs was studied following liver ischemia (LI) or OLT in rats. In LI, 60 min of warm ischemia was induced in shunted rats (shunt LI group; 100% survival)(More)
OBJECTIVES Mast cell mediators are likely to be involved in at least some aspects of the immunopathogenesis of oral lichen planus (OLP). The aim of this project was to map mast cell populations in OLP and identify possible sites of mast cell-nerve interactions. MATERIALS AND METHODS Monoclonal antibodies specific for tryptase and neurofilaments were used(More)
Chemotaxis is essential for many biological processes. Much of our understanding of the mechanisms underlying chemotaxis is based on a variety of in vitro assays. We review these assays, dividing them into groups depending on the process used to generate the gradient. We describe how each method works, its strengths and limitations, and provide some(More)