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The BLAST programs are widely used tools for searching protein and DNA databases for sequence similarities. For protein comparisons, a variety of definitional, algorithmic and statistical refinements described here permits the execution time of the BLAST programs to be decreased substantially while enhancing their sensitivity to weak similarities. A new(More)
PipMaker (http://bio.cse.psu.edu) is a World-Wide Web site for comparing two long DNA sequences to identify conserved segments and for producing informative, high-resolution displays of the resulting alignments. One display is a percent identity plot (pip), which shows both the position in one sequence and the degree of similarity for each aligning segment(More)
We address the problem of efficiently aligning a transcribed and spliced DNA sequence with a genomic sequence containing that gene, allowing for introns in the genomic sequence and a relatively small number of sequencing errors. A freely available computer program, described herein, solves the problem for a 100-kb genomic sequence in a few seconds on a(More)
The pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is reviewed, taking account of knowledge gained from field and experimental studies and embracing investigations at the level of the virus, the cell, the organ, the whole animal and the herd or flock. The review also addresses the immune response and the carrier state in FMD. Progress made in understanding(More)
The inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and its signal characteristics were discussed using modern spectral estimation technique. The power spectra density (PSD) was calculated using the auto-regression (AR) model of modern spectra estimation. The Levinson-Durbin recursion method was used to estimate the model parameters which(More)
The FASTA package of sequence comparison programs has been expanded to include FASTX and FASTY, which compare a DNA sequence to a protein sequence database, translating the DNA sequence in three frames and aligning the translated DNA sequence to each sequence in the protein database, allowing gaps and frameshifts. Also new are TFASTX and TFASTY, which(More)
Chondrogenesis results in the formation of cartilages, initial skeletal elements that can serve as templates for endochondral bone formation. Cartilage formation begins with the condensation of mesenchyme cells followed by their differentiation into chondrocytes. Although much is known about the terminal differentiation products that are expressed by(More)
The cytochrome bc1 is one of the three major respiratory enzyme complexes residing in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Cytochrome bc1 transfers electrons from ubiquinol to cytochrome c and uses the energy thus released to form an electrochemical gradient across the inner membrane. Our X-ray crystal structures of the complex from chicken, cow and rabbit in(More)
The roles of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and phospholipase C (PLC) in chemoattractant-elicited responses were studied in mice lacking these key enzymes. PI3Kgamma was required for chemoattractant-induced production of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PtdIns (3,4,5)P3] and has an important role in chemoattractant-induced superoxide production(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We tested the hypothesis that intravenous infusion of bone marrow derived-marrow stromal cells (MSCs) enter the brain and reduce neurological functional deficits after stroke in rats. METHODS Rats (n=32) were subjected to 2 hours of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Test groups consisted of MCAO alone (group 1, n=6);(More)