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The objective of the current study was to investigate the toll-like receptors (TLR), including the soluble forms sTLR2 and sTLR4, involved in innate immune responses of dairy cows to experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis. Six clinically healthy Holstein dairy cows received an intramammary inoculation of E. coli O111:K58 between 63 and 83 d(More)
BACKGROUND Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) has been used as an immunomodulator that can enhance immune responses, whereas the immunomodulatory effects of APS on porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) exposed to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) have not been investigated. (More)
Pheromonicin-SA (Ph-SA) is a newly developed, engineered multidomain peptide that has a bactericidal effect against Staphylococcus aureus. The objective of this study was to characterize innate immune responses by Staph. aureus-stimulated bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC) following treatment with Ph-SA. Primary BMEC from one lactating Holstein cow were(More)
View maintenance BLT86, GMS93, GM955 bas been generally studied as a problem to compute the changes to the view given the changes to the underlying relations, while having access to the view and the underlying relations. BCL89 deenes a view to be autonomously computable with respect to a given update if the view can be maintained using only the materialized(More)
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