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The 5.67-megabase genome of the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 consists of a circular chromosome, a linear chromosome, and two plasmids. Extensive orthology and nucleotide colinearity between the genomes of A. tumefaciens and the plant symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti suggest a recent evolutionary divergence. Their similarities include(More)
Studies conducted in China examining cross-cultural differences in 3- to 6-month-olds used the still-face paradigm. In each study, 20 infants were in the experimental group (normal, still-face, normal interactions) and 20 in the control (3 normal periods). In Study 1, infants interacted with either their mother or their father; they looked and smiled less(More)
Theoretical considerations and recent experimental data have prompted an investigation of the neurotoxicological properties of the 6-hydroxydopamine analogue 2-(methylamino)-1-(2,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl)propane (5) and its possible precursor 1-[2-hydroxy-4,5-(methylenedioxy)phenyl]-2- (methylamino)propane (4), potential metabolites of the serotonergic(More)
Ghrelin, an orexigenic brain-gut hormone promoting feeding and regulating energy metabolism in human and rodents, was reported to enhance both adult neurogenesis and hippocampus-dependent memory formation. However, it is still unclear whether ghrelin-induced hippocampus neurogenesis is responsible for its memory improvement. Using 5-bromo-2' deoxyuridien(More)
The in vivo flux through the oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway (oxPPP) in Penicillium chrysogenum was determined during growth in glucose/ethanol carbon-limited chemostat cultures, at the same growth rate. Non-stationary (13)C flux analysis was used to measure the oxPPP flux. A nearly constant oxPPP flux was found for all glucose/ethanol(More)
One of the major breakthroughs associated with multiferroicity in recent years is the discovery of ferroelectricity generated by specific magnetic structures in some magnetic insulating oxides such as rare-earth manganites RMnO3 and RMn2O5. An unresolved issue is the small electric polarization. Relatively large electric polarization and strong(More)
BACKGROUND In microbial production of non-catabolic products such as antibiotics a loss of production capacity upon long-term cultivation (for example chemostat), a phenomenon called strain degeneration, is often observed. In this study a systems biology approach, monitoring changes from gene to produced flux, was used to study degeneration of penicillin(More)
BACKGROUND Penicillium chrysogenum, the main production strain for penicillin-G, has a high content of intracellular carbohydrates, especially reduced sugars such as mannitol, arabitol, erythritol, as well as trehalose and glycogen. In previous steady state C wash-in experiments a delay of labeling enrichments in glycolytic intermediates was observed, which(More)
The nanoscale anisotropic elastic-plastic behavior of single-crystal aragonite is studied using nanoindentation and tapping mode atomic force microscopy imaging. Force-depth curves coaxial to the axis exhibited load plateaus indicative of dislocation nucleation events. Plasticity on distinct slip systems was evident in residual topographic impressions where(More)