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Bax is a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 protein family that resides in the outer mitochondrial membrane. It is controversial whether Bax promotes cell death directly through its putative function as a channel protein versus indirectly by inhibiting cellular regulators of the cell death proteases (caspases). We show here that addition of submicromolar(More)
The proapoptotic Bax protein induces cell death by acting on mitochondria. Bax binds to the permeability transition pore complex (PTPC), a composite proteaceous channel that is involved in the regulation of mitochondrial membrane permeability. Immunodepletion of Bax from PTPC or purification of PTPC from Bax-deficient mice yielded a PTPC that could not(More)
The entry of RNA polymerase II into a productive mode of elongation is controlled, in part, by the postinitiation activity of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) (Marshall, N. F., and Price, D. H. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 12335-12338). We report here that removal of the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of the large subunit of RNA polymerase(More)
TR3, an immediate-early response gene and an orphan member of the steroid-thyroid hormone-retinoid receptor superfamily of transcription factors, regulates apoptosis through an unknown mechanism. In response to apoptotic stimuli, TR3 translocates from the nucleus to mitochondria to induce cytochrome c release and apoptosis. Mitochondrial targeting of TR3,(More)
We have shown previously that partial inhibition of the cardiac myocyte Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activates signal pathways that regulate myocyte growth and growth-related genes and that increases in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are two essential second messengers within these pathways. The aim of this work was(More)
Plants contain RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) activities that synthesize short cRNAs by using cellular or viral RNAs as templates. During studies of salicylic acid (SA)-induced resistance to viral pathogens, we recently found that the activity of a tobacco RdRP was increased in virus-infected or SA-treated plants. Biologically active SA analogs capable(More)
The 70 kDa heat shock family of molecular chaperones is essential to a variety of cellular processes, yet it is unclear how these proteins are regulated in vivo. We present evidence that the protein BAG-1 is a potential modulator of the molecular chaperones, Hsp70 and Hsc70. BAG-1 binds to the ATPase domain of Hsp70 and Hsc70, without requirement for their(More)
Bcl-2 is the prototypical member of a large family of apoptosis-regulating proteins, consisting of blockers and promoters of cell death. The three-dimensional structure of a Bcl-2 homologue, Bcl-XL, suggests striking similarity to the pore-forming domains of diphtheria toxin and the bacterial colicins, prompting exploration of whether Bcl-2 is capable of(More)
Based on two partial cDNA sequences, a full-length cDNA sequence for an actin-binding like protein previously named ABPL has been isolated and characterized. ABPL is homologous to the human actin-binding proteins ABP-280 and ABP-278. The predicted sequence for ABPL is 2,705 amino acids in length with a calculated molecular mass of 289 kDa. It contains an(More)
Nontoxic concentrations of ouabain, causing partial inhibition of the cardiac myocyte Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, induce hypertrophy and several growth-related genes through signal pathways that include the activation of Ras and p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). The aim of this work was to examine the ouabain-induced events upstream of the Ras/MAPK(More)