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The Pax5 gene, coding for the transcription factor BSAP, was mutated in the mouse germline by targeted disruption. Homozygous mutant mice were born alive, became growth retarded, and usually died within three weeks. About 5% of mutants survived to adulthood and were fertile, but severely runted. Morphogenesis of the posterior midbrain was affected as early(More)
The receptor for insulin-like growth factor type 2, also known as the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (Igf2/Mpr), is a multifunctional receptor thought to play a role in lysosomal targeting, cell growth and signal transduction. Igf2/Mpr has been mapped to the mouse Tme locus and shown to be an imprinted gene, which further suggests a role in(More)
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1), a nuclear enzyme that facilitates DNA repair, may be instrumental in acute neuronal cell death in a variety of insults including, cerebral ischemia, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced parkinsonism, and CNS trauma. Excitotoxicity is thought to underlie these and other toxic models of neuronal death.(More)
Apoptotic cell death in the retina was recently demonstrated in animal models of the hereditary human retinal dystrophy known as retinitis pigmentosa. Although recent evidence indicates that the proto-oncogene c-fos is a mediator of apoptosis, its precise role is unclear. In fact, under some conditions, c-fos may even protect against apoptotic cell death.(More)
We generated mice, null mutant in the adhesion molecule on glia (AMOG), the beta 2 subunit of the murine Na,K-ATPase gene. These mice exhibit motor incoordination at 15 d of age, subsequently tremor and paralysis of extremities, and die at 17-18 d after birth. At these ages, the mutants have enlarged ventricles, degenerating photoreceptor cells, and(More)
The proto-oncogene c-fos is the cellular homologue of v-fos originally isolated from murine osteosarcoma. Fos protein is a major component of the AP-1 transcription factor complex, which includes members of the jun family. Stable expression of c-fos in mice has been demonstrated in developing bones and teeth, haematopoietic cells, germ cells and in the(More)
Damage to skin collagen and elastin (extracellular matrix) is the hallmark of long-term exposure to solar ultraviolet irradiation, and is believed to be responsible for the wrinkled appearance of sun-exposed skin. We report here that matrix-degrading metalloproteinase messenger RNAs, proteins and activities are induced in human skin in vivo within hours of(More)
Mice lacking the proto-oncogene c-fos develop the bone disease osteopetrosis. Fos mutant mice were found to have a block in the differentiation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts that was intrinsic to hematopoietic cells. Bone marrow transplantation rescued the osteopetrosis, and ectopic c-fos expression overcame this differentiation block. The lack of Fos also(More)
1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is a neurotoxin that causes parkinsonism in humans and nonhuman animals, and its use has led to greater understanding of the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. However, its molecular targets have not been defined. We show that mice lacking the gene for poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), which catalyzes(More)
Many human diseases are associated with the overproduction of oxygen free radicals that inflict cell damage. A manganese(II) complex with a bis(cyclohexylpyridine)-substituted macrocyclic ligand (M40403) was designed to be a functional mimic of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes that normally remove these radicals. M40403 had high catalytic SOD activity(More)