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Small-molecule Smac mimetics are being developed as a novel class of anticancer drugs. Recent studies have shown that Smac mimetics target cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein (cIAP)-1/2 for degradation and induce tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha)-dependent apoptosis in tumor cells. In this study, we have investigated the mechanism of action and(More)
We have designed MI-219 as a potent, highly selective and orally active small-molecule inhibitor of the MDM2-p53 interaction. MI-219 binds to human MDM2 with a K(i) value of 5 nM and is 10,000-fold selective for MDM2 over MDMX. It disrupts the MDM2-p53 interaction and activates the p53 pathway in cells with wild-type p53, which leads to induction of cell(More)
The X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) is a promising new molecular target for the design of novel anticancer drugs aiming at overcoming apoptosis-resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents and radiation therapy. Recent studies demonstrated that the BIR3 domain of XIAP where caspase-9 and Smac proteins bind is an attractive site for designing(More)
The X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is a potent cellular inhibitor of apoptosis. Designing small-molecule inhibitors that target the BIR3 domain of XIAP, where Smac/DIABLO (second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase/direct IAP-binding protein with low pI) and caspase-9 bind, is a promising strategy for inhibiting the antiapoptotic(More)
Potent, specific, non-peptide small-molecule inhibitors of the MDM2-p53 interaction were successfully designed. The most potent inhibitor (MI-63) has a K(i) value of 3 nM binding to MDM2 and greater than 10,000-fold selectivity over Bcl-2/Bcl-xL proteins. MI-63 is highly effective in activation of p53 function and in inhibition of cell growth in cancer(More)
A successful structure-based design of a class of non-peptide small-molecule MDM2 inhibitors targeting the p53-MDM2 protein-protein interaction is reported. The most potent compound 1d binds to MDM2 protein with a Ki value of 86 nM and is 18 times more potent than a natural p53 peptide (residues 16-27). Compound 1d is potent in inhibition of cell growth in(More)
We report the discovery and characterization of SM-406 (compound 2), a potent and orally bioavailable Smac mimetic and an antagonist of the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). This compound binds to XIAP, cIAP1, and cIAP2 proteins with K(i) of 66.4, 1.9, and 5.1 nM, respectively. Compound 2 effectively antagonizes XIAP BIR3 protein in a cell-free(More)
The RAS/BRAF/MEK/ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is emerging as a key modulator of melanoma initiation and progression. However, a variety of clinical studies indicate that inhibiting the MAPK pathway is insufficient per se to effectively kill melanoma cells. Here, we report on a genetic and pharmacologic approach to identify survival(More)
XIAP is a central apoptosis regulator that inhibits apoptosis by binding to and inhibiting the effectors caspase-3/-7 and an initiator caspase-9 through its BIR2 and BIR3 domains, respectively. Smac protein in its dimeric form effectively antagonizes XIAP by concurrently targeting both its BIR2 and BIR3 domains. We report the design, synthesis, and(More)
XIAP (X-chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein) is an inhibitor of apoptosis by binding to and inhibition of caspase-3 and caspase-7 through its BIR2 domain and caspase-9 through its BIR3 domain. Smac (second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases) protein is an endogenous antagonist of XIAP. Smac forms a dimer and concurrently binds both the(More)