Learn More
The midbrain-hindbrain (MHB) junction has the properties of an organizer that patterns the MHB region early in vertebrate development. Fgf8 is thought to mediate this organizer function. In addition to Fgf8, Fgf17 and Fgf18 are also expressed in the MHB junction. Fgf17 is expressed later and broader than either Fgf8 or Fgf18. Disrupting the Fgf17 gene in(More)
The pathogenicity of avian H5N1 influenza viruses to mammals has been evolving since the mid-1980s. Here, we demonstrate that H5N1 influenza viruses, isolated from apparently healthy domestic ducks in mainland China from 1999 through 2002, were becoming progressively more pathogenic for mammals, and we present a hypothesis explaining the mechanism of this(More)
L6 myoblasts stably transfected with a GLUT4 cDNA harboring an exofacial myc epitope tag (L6-GLUT4myc myoblasts) were used to study the role of protein kinase B alpha (PKBalpha)/Akt1 in the insulin-induced translocation of GLUT4 to the cell surface. Surface GLUT4myc was detected by immunofluorescent labeling of the myc epitope in nonpermeabilized cells.(More)
The inhibitor-of-apoptosis proteins (IAPs) regulate programmed cell death by inhibiting members of the caspase family of enzymes. Recently, a mammalian protein called Smac (also named DIABLO) was identified that binds to the IAPs and promotes caspase activation. Although undefined in the X-ray structure, the amino-terminal residues of Smac are critical for(More)
The ability to taste the sweetness of carbohydrate-rich foodstuffs has a critical role in the nutritional status of humans. Although several components of bitter transduction pathways have been identified, the receptors and other sweet transduction elements remain unknown. The Sac locus in mouse, mapped to the distal end of chromosome 4 (refs. 7-9), is the(More)
In the present study, 25 195 BAC ends for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were sequenced, generating 20 366 clean BAC-end sequences (BES), with an average read length of 557 bp after trimming. A total of 11 414 601 bp were generated, representing approximately 1.2% of the catfish genome. Based on this survey, the catfish genome was found to be highly(More)
The death domain kinase RIP and the TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) are essential effectors in TNF signaling. To understand the mechanism by which RIP and TRAF2 regulate TNF-induced activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB, we investigated their respective roles in TNF-R1-mediated IKK activation using both RIP-/- and TRAF2-/- fibroblasts.(More)
BACKGROUND Infection following abdominal operation remains a major factor affecting the morbidity of patients after surgery. AIM To determine the effects of perioperative administration of probiotics on the gut barrier function and the surgical outcome in patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery. METHODS One hundred patients with colorectal(More)
Haplo-insufficiency of human Lis1 causes lissencephaly. Reduced Lis1 activity in both humans and mice results in a neuronal migration defect. Here we show that Drosophila Lis1 is highly expressed in the nervous system. Lis1 is essential for neuroblast proliferation and axonal transport, as shown by a mosaic analysis using a Lis1 null mutation. Moreover, it(More)