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The TCR signals are essential for T cell activation and proliferation, primarily through the induction of cytokine and cytokine receptors. Several transcription factor families, including NF-kappaB/Rel, have been implicated in the regulation of cytokine gene expression in T cells in response to antigen, cytokine and mitogenic stimulation. In this study, we(More)
During T cell activation, TCRs cluster at the center of the T cell-antigen-presenting cell interface forming the central supramolecular activation cluster. Although it has been suggested that sphingolipid- and cholesterol-rich microdomains, termed lipid rafts, form platforms for the regulation and transduction of TCR signals, an actual role for membrane(More)
Follistatin-related protein (FRP)/follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1) is a member of the follistatin protein family, all of which share a characteristic structure unit found in follistatin, called the FS domain. Developmental studies have suggested that FRP regulates organ tissue formation in embryos. Immunological studies showed that FRP modifies joint inflammation(More)
Leukocyte adhesion and trafficking at the endothelium requires both adhesion molecules and chemotactic factors. Fractalkine (CX3C) is a unique chemokine, and is expressed on tumor necrosis factor-alpha- and interleukin-1-activated endothelial cells (ECs). Fractalkine receptor, CX3CR1, is expressed on NK cells, monocytes, and some portion of CD4- and(More)
Engagement of the Fas receptor (CD95) initiates multiple signaling pathways that lead to apoptosis, such as the formation of death-inducing signaling complex (DISC), activation of caspase cascades, and the generation of the lipid messenger, ceramide. Sphingomyelin (SM) is a major component of lipid rafts, which are specialized structures that enhance the(More)
Cisplatin is widely and effectively used for the treatment of various types of cancer. However, its biochemical mechanisms are still unelucidated. Previously, we reported that membrane sphingomyelin (SM) was important for FAS-mediated apoptosis through lipid raft function. In this study, we strikingly show that cisplatin combined with CH11 (anti-FAS(More)
Leptin is an adipokine that regulates body weight. In the current study, we demonstrate that continuous injection of leptin prevents the lymphocyte reduction observed in fasted mice, especially the immature B cell populations in the bone marrow. Although leptin administration reduced apoptotic cells in the bone marrow of fasted mice, it did not prevent(More)
Serum titers of antibody to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viral capsid antigen (VCA) have been positively correlated with malignancies of lymphoid proliferation, such as Burkitt's lymphoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma. We have constructed a phage display combinatorial antibody Fab library from a patient with marginal zone B cell lymphoma associated with Sjögren's(More)
c-Rel is a lymphoid-specific member of the NF-kappaB/Rel family of transcriptional factors. To investigate the role of c-Rel in B lymphocyte function, we generated a c-Rel(-/-) mouse via a gene targeting approach. Although early lymphocyte development is normal in c-Rel(-/-) mice, there are significantly fewer B cells displaying a memory (IgM/IgD-)(More)
Herbal remedies containing root extracts of Panax ginseng are commonly used for complementary or alternative therapies. Ginsenosides, the major components of root extracts, are responsible for ginseng's pharmacological and biological effects; however, their mechanisms of action are unclear. We examined whether membrane cholesterol was involved in the(More)