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The checkpoint kinase Xchk1 becomes phosphorylated in Xenopus egg extracts in response to DNA replication blocks or UV-damaged DNA. Xchk1 is also required for the cell cycle delay that is induced by unreplicated or UV-damaged DNA. In this report, we have removed the Xenopus homolog of ATR (Xatr) from egg extracts by immunodepletion. In Xatr-depleted(More)
Elevated plasma levels of the sulfur-containing amino acid homocysteine increase the risk for atherosclerosis, stroke, and possibly Alzheimer's disease, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We now report that homocysteine induces apoptosis in rat hippocampal neurons. DNA strand breaks and associated activation of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and(More)
Sequence variations have been identified in a number of DNA repair genes, including XPD, but the effect of these polymorphisms on DNA repair capacity (DRC) is uncertain. We therefore examined XPD polymorphisms at Lys751Gln and Asp312Asn in 341 white lung cancer cases and 360 age-, sex-, ethnicity-, and smoking-matched controls accrued in a hospital-based(More)
Limited success of somatic cell nuclear transfer is attributed to incomplete reprogramming of transferred nuclei. The objective was to determine if 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) and trichostatin A (TSA) promoted reprogramming and improved development. Relative to untreated controls, treatment of donor cells, cloned embryos, and continuous treatment of(More)
A simple and rapid method for the analysis of genetic polymorphisms has been developed using allele-specific oligonucleotide arrays bound to glass supports. Allele-specific oligonucleotides are covalently immobilized on glass slides in arrays of 3 mm spots. Genomic DNA is amplified by PCR using one fluorescently tagged primer oligonucleotide and one(More)
The tumor suppressor protein p53 is essential for neuronal death in several experimental settings and may participate in human neurodegenerative disorders. Based upon recent studies characterizing chemical inhibitors of p53 in preclinical studies in the cancer therapy field, we synthesized the compound pifithrin-alpha and evaluated its potential(More)
Activation of IkappaB kinase (IKK) is the key step in stimulation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB, which regulates many genes in the inflammatory response pathway. The molecular mechanism that underlies IKK activation in response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is still unknown. Using mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3 (MEKK3)-deficient(More)
OBJECTIVES The purpose of this investigation was to study the role of dementia and other common age-related diseases as determinants of dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) in the elderly. METHODS The study population consisted of 1745 persons, aged 75 years and older, living in a district of Stockholm. They were examined at baseline and after a(More)
Intracellular cholesterol redistribution between membranes and its subsequent esterification are critical aspects of lipid homeostasis that prevent free sterol toxicity. To identify genes that mediate sterol trafficking, we screened for yeast mutants that were inviable in the absence of sterol esterification. Mutations in the novel gene, ARV1, render cells(More)