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The application of direct torque control (DTC) to brushless ac drives has been investigated extensively. This paper describes its application to brushless dc drives, and highlights the essential differences in its implementation, as regards torque estimation and the representation of the inverter voltage space vectors. Simulated and experimental results are(More)
A simple analytical technique is proposed to synthesize the cogging-torque waveform of a permanent-magnet brushless machine from the cogging torque, which is associated with a single stator slot. An analytical expression is derived, which reveals the relationship between the two. It is then applied to two motors, which have a fractional number of slots per(More)
Flux-switching permanent-magnet (FSPM) brushless machines have emerged as an attractive machine type by virtue of their high torque densities, simple and robust rotor structure, and the fact that permanent magnets and coils are both located on the stator. Both 2-D and 3-D finite element analyses are employed to compare the performance of a conventional all(More)
A general analytical model, formulated in 2-D polar coordinates, is developed to predict the unbalanced magnetic force, which results in permanent-magnet brushless ac and dc machines having a diametrically asymmetric disposition of slots and phase windings. It is shown that the unbalanced magnetic force can be significant in machines having a fractional(More)
This paper describes an improved implementation of direct torque control (DTC) to a permanent-magnet brushless dc (BLDC) drive. The commutation torque ripple, which occurs every 60deg elec. in a conventional three-phase BLDC machine with two-phase 120deg elec. conduction, is reduced by employing a hybrid two- and three-phase switching mode during the(More)
This paper presents a comparative study of three-phase permanent-magnet brushless machines in which the slot and pole numbers are similar, with reference to conventional brushless dc machines in which the ratio of the slot number to pole number is usually 3 : 2. Three different motor designs are considered. Two have equal tooth widths, with one having a(More)
This paper presents an improved signal-injection-based sensorless-control method for permanent-magnet brushless AC (BLAC) motors, accounting for the influence of cross-coupling magnetic saturation between the <i>d</i>- and <i>q</i> -axes. The <i>d</i>- and <i>q</i> -axis incremental self-inductances, the incremental mutual inductance between the(More)
Gastric cancer is one of the most aggressive cancers and is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Approximately 40% of global gastric cancer cases occur in China, with peritoneal metastasis being the prevalent form of recurrence and metastasis in advanced disease. Currently, there are limited clinical approaches for predicting and treatment of(More)
The sensorless control of brushless machines by detecting the third harmonic back electromotive force is a relatively simple and potentially low-cost technique. However, its application has been reported only for brushless dc motors operating under normal commutation. In this paper, the utility of the method for the sensorless control of both brushless dc(More)
Hybrid excited machines are of interest due to the potential of combining the high power density of PM machines with the flux-adjusting capability of wound field excitation. This paper reviews currently documented hybrid excited machines and compares the flux control performance and torque density of alternative hybrid flux-switching PM machines by means of(More)