We present an upper and a lower bound for the spectral radius of non-negative matrices. Then we give the bounds for the spectral radius of digraphs.
In this work the optimization-based, integrated concurrent design method is applied to the modelling, analysis, and design of a transportation fuel cell system. A general optimal design model considering both functional performance and production costs is first introduced. Using the Ballard Mark V Transit Bus fuel cell system as an example, the study… (More)
NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2 (NAC) proteins are plant-specific transcription factors playing essential roles in plant development and various abiotic stress responses. In the present study, we identified 173 full-length NAC genes in soybean which were phylogenetically clustered into 15 groups (NACa - NACo). The soybean NAC genes (GmNACs) were non-randomly located… (More)
Whole-crop wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as forage has been extensively used in the world. In this study, the effects of N application rates on the yields, nutritive value and silage quality were investigated. The N application rates were 0, 75, 150, 225, and 300 kg/ha. The research results indicated that the dry matter yield of whole-crop wheat increased… (More)