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Discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO) is gaining popularity in the area of combinatorial optimization in the recent past due to its simplicity in coding and consistency in performance. A DPSO algorithm has been developed for orienteering problem (OP) which has been shown to have many practical applications. It uses reduced variable neighborhood search(More)
In this paper, we propose a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based solution to the Orienteering Problem. A major problem in many PSO applications is the premature convergence of some particles to local optimums. To overcome this problem in our application, such particles are re-initiated; consequently, the exploration capability of PSO is improved.(More)
In this paper we present a middleware for storing and retrieving XML documents in relational databases. To store XML documents in RDBMS, several mapping approaches can be used. We chose structure independent approach. This approach stores XML documents in fixed-schema tables and does not require a direct extension of SQL. So the middleware can be used with(More)
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