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Habitat degradation and fragmentation are widespread phenomena in tropical regions. Negative effects on the biota are numerous, ranging from interruption of gene flow among populations, to the loss of genetic diversity within populations, to a decline in species richness over time. Orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini) are of major conservation(More)
Neotropical orchid bees (Euglossini) are conspicuously different from other corbiculate bees (Apinae) in their lack of advanced sociality and in male use of acquired odors (fragrances) as pheromone-analogues. In both contexts, orchid bee mating systems, in particular the number of males a female mates with, are of great interest but are currently unknown.(More)
Male orchid bees (Euglossini) collect fragrances from flowers and other natural sources, a behaviour that has shaped the euglossine pollination syndrome. Males store such chemicals in hind leg pouches and later expose them during courtship display. In the present study, we show that complex bouquets of two sympatric species of Eulaema, E. meriana and E.(More)
Allozyme analyses have suggested that Neotropical orchid bee (Euglossini) pollinators are vulnerable because of putative high frequencies of diploid males, a result of loss of sex allele diversity in small hymenopteran populations with single locus complementary sex determination. Our analysis of 1010 males from 27 species of euglossine bees sampled across(More)
Saltational changes may underlie the diversification of pheromone communication systems in insects, which are normally under stabilizing selection favoring high specificity in signals and signal perception. In orchid bees (Euglossini), the production of male signals depends on the sense of smell: males collect complex blends of volatiles (perfumes) from(More)
The SOAMIG Project aims at a general migration process model with an emphasis on transformation-based conversion. The SOAMIG Process Model is divided into several phases and disciplines, which describe and organize general migration activities. The process is applied in two industrial software migration projects addressing architecture and code migration.
Male Neotropical orchid bees (Euglossini) collect volatile substances (fragrances) from flowers and other sources (e.g., decaying wood) and store them in specialized hind tibial pockets. The accumulated chemicals are later emitted during courtship display, presumably to lure conspecific females for mating. We analyzed tibial fragrances of males of 15(More)
Enfleurage, the extraction of elusive floral scents with the help of a lipophilic carrier (grease), is widely used in the perfume industry. Male neotropical orchid bees (Euglossini), which accumulate exogenous fragrances as pheromone analogues, use a similar technique. To collect fragrances, the bees apply large amounts of straight-chain lipids to(More)
Transcription factors of the SoxD protein family have previously been shown to prevent precocious specification and terminal differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in the developing spinal cord. Using mice with specific deletion of the SoxD proteins Sox5 and Sox6 in the central nervous system, we now show that SoxD proteins additionally(More)