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Calcium (Ca(2+)) release through inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP(3)Rs) regulates the function of virtually every mammalian cell. Unlike ryanodine receptors, which generate local Ca(2+) events ("sparks") that transmit signals to the juxtaposed cell membrane, a similar functional architecture has not been reported for IP(3)Rs. Here, we have(More)
Genetically encoded sensor proteins provide unique opportunities to advance the understanding of complex cellular interactions in physiologically relevant contexts; however, previously described sensors have proved to be of limited use to report cell signaling in vivo in mammals. Here, we describe an improved Ca(2+) sensor, GCaMP2, its inducible expression(More)
The peripheral nervous system has complex and intricate ramifications throughout many target organ systems. To date this system has not been effectively labeled by genetic markers, due largely to inadequate transcriptional specification by minimum promoter constructs. Here we describe transgenic mice in which enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) is(More)
Directed differentiation of embryonic stem cells indicates that mesodermal lineages in the mammalian heart (cardiac, endothelial, and smooth muscle cells) develop from a common, multipotent cardiovascular precursor. To isolate and characterize the lineage potential of a resident pool of cardiovascular progenitor cells (CPcs), we developed BAC transgenic(More)
To study endothelial cell (EC)- specific Ca(2+) signaling in vivo we engineered transgenic mice in which the Ca(2+) sensor GCaMP2 is placed under control of endogenous connexin40 (Cx40) transcription regulatory elements within a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), resulting in high sensor expression in arterial ECs, atrial myocytes, and cardiac Purkinje(More)
Studies have characterized conduction velocity in the right and left bundle branches (RBB, LBB) of normal and genetically engineered mice. However, no information is available on the action potential characteristics of the specialized conduction system (SCS). We have used microelectrode techniques to characterize action potential properties of the murine(More)
Ventricular tachyarrhythmias are the main cause of sudden death in patients after myocardial infarction. Here we show that transplantation of embryonic cardiomyocytes (eCMs) in myocardial infarcts protects against the induction of ventricular tachycardia (VT) in mice. Engraftment of eCMs, but not skeletal myoblasts (SMs), bone marrow cells or cardiac(More)
Acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis and release from basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN) innervating the cerebral cortex and hippocampus are essential processes for normal learning, memory and attention. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 9 is a cholinergic differentiation factor in the developing septum that increases ACh synthesis and choline(More)
In the epithelium of the lower airways, a cell type of unknown function has been termed "brush cell" because of a distinctive ultrastructural feature, an apical tuft of microvilli. Morphologically similar cells in the nose have been identified as solitary chemosensory cells responding to taste stimuli and triggering trigeminal reflexes. Here we show that(More)
Genetically encoded signaling proteins provide remarkable opportunities to design and target the expression of molecules that can be used to report critical cellular events in vivo, thereby markedly extending the scope and physiological relevance of studies of cell function. Here we report the development of a transgenic mouse expressing such a reporter and(More)