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The association of white matter (WM) lesions and grey matter (GM) atrophy is a feature in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). The spatiotemporal distribution pattern of WM lesions, their relations to regional GM changes and the underlying dynamics are unclear. Here we combined parametric and non-parametric voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to clarify(More)
Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) has been used repeatedly in single-center studies to investigate regional gray matter (GM) atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS). In multi-center trials, across-scanner variations might interfere with the detection of disease-specific structural abnormalities, thereby potentially limiting the use of VBM. Here we evaluated(More)
Levetiracetam (LEV) is a broad-spectrum antiepileptic drug with no known interactions and a favorable profile of adverse events. These properties make it a good candidate for use in critically ill patients. An intravenous formulation of LEV was recently approved. The present study retrospectively assesses the safety and efficacy of LEV in the first 50(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic disorder of the central nervous system and common cause of neurological disability in young adults, is characterized by moderate but complex risk heritability. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study performed in a 1000 prospective case series of well-characterized individuals with MS and(More)
Previous studies have established regional gray matter (GM) volume loss in multiple sclerosis (MS) but the relationship between development of white matter (WM) lesions and changes of regional GM volumes is unclear. The present study addresses this issue by means of voxel-based morphometry (VBM). T1-weighted three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging(More)
PURPOSE To determine whether spinal cord atrophy differs among disease subtypes in multiple sclerosis (MS) and whether it offers diagnostic and clinical correlative information beyond that provided by other magnetic resonance (MR) imaging markers. MATERIALS AND METHODS The institutional review board approved the study; all subjects gave written informed(More)
BACKGROUND Statins have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties in addition to lipid-lowering effects. OBJECTIVES To report the 12-month extension of a phase II trial evaluating the efficacy, safety and tolerability of atorvastatin 40 mg/d added to interferon beta-1b (IFNB-1b) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). METHODS In the(More)
Gene-gene interactions are proposed as an important component of the genetic architecture of complex diseases, and are just beginning to be evaluated in the context of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). In addition to detecting epistasis, a benefit to interaction analysis is that it also increases power to detect weak main effects. We conducted a(More)
Prevention of global gray matter (GM) volume changes in multiple sclerosis (MS) are an objective in clinical trials, but the effect of immunomodulatory medication on regional GM atrophy progression is unclear. MRIs from 86 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) followed up for 24 months were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry. An analysis of(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by temporal and spatial dissemination of demyelinating lesions in the central nervous system. Associated neurodegenerative changes contributing to disability have been recognized even at early disease stages. Recent studies show the importance of gray matter damage for the accrual of clinical disability rather than(More)