Yvonne I. Spencer

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Further preliminary observations are reported of an experiment to examine the spread of infectivity and the occurrence of pathological changes in cattle exposed orally to infection with bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Calves were dosed at four months of age and clinically monitored groups were killed sequentially from two to 40 months after inoculation.(More)
The immunohistochemical localisation of the disease-specific protein, PrP(Sc), was examined in the distal ileum of cattle up to 40 months after they had been exposed orally to the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), in the intestines and mesenteric lymph nodes of an additional group of cattle, killed six months after a similar exposure, and in(More)
This study examines tissues from sequential-kill, time-course pathogenesis studies to refine estimates of the age at which disease-specific PrP (PrP(Sc)) can first be detected in the central nervous system (CNS) and related peripheral nervous system ganglia of cattle incubating bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Such estimates are important for risk(More)
The aim of this study was to obtain a contemporary data set of pathology in tuberculin reactor and in-contact cattle in England and Wales. Four hundred animals (200 reactors and 200 in-contacts) from 242 farms located in 14 counties in Western England and Wales were examined. The mean number of lymph nodes (LNs) with tuberculosis (TB)-like lesions per(More)
The continuous monitoring of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) cases is an integral component of European research and surveillance programmes, to ensure that any changes in the presentation of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) in cattle can be detected and defined. Monitoring is generally limited to the brainstem at the level of the(More)
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) may have been transmitted to British sheep via contaminated feed in the 1980s. Strain-typing techniques based on immunohistochemical (IHC) detection of abnormal protein (PrP(d)) and the molecular analysis of proteinase-resistant protein (PrP(res)) by Western blotting (WB) can discriminate between natural or(More)
An H1N1 strain of influenza virus (A/swine/England/195852/92) isolated recently from clinical epizootics in pigs was transmitted experimentally to six-week-old specific pathogen-free pigs. Between one and four days after inoculation the infected pigs developed pyrexia and showed signs of coughing, sneezing and anorexia. Seroconversion was detected seven(More)
The pathognomonic characteristic of tuberculosis (TB) is the formation of a tuberculous granuloma. The objective of this study was to classify lymph node granulomas from experimentally infected calves into different histopathological stages and characterize them further by studying cell types and markers of fibrosis associated with each of the stages. Four(More)
Development of necrotic granulomas in response to Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle is pathognomonic for bovine tuberculosis. Previously our laboratory reported on M. bovis granuloma classification by stage of lesion advancement within bovine lymph nodes and developed immunohistochemical markers to further characterize these granulomas. In this study(More)
BACKGROUND In the wake of the epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy the British government established a flock of sheep from which scrapie-free animals are supplied to laboratories for research. Three breeds of sheep carrying a variety of different genotypes associated with scrapie susceptibility/resistance were imported in 1998 and 2001 from New(More)