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BACKGROUND As the population of Africa rapidly urbanizes, large populations could be protected from malaria by controlling aquatic stages of mosquitoes if cost-effective and scalable implementation systems can be designed. METHODS A recently initiated Urban Malaria Control Programme in Dar es Salaam delegates responsibility for routine mosquito control(More)
BACKGROUND Successful malaria vector control depends on understanding behavioural interactions between mosquitoes and humans, which are highly setting-specific and may have characteristic features in urban environments. Here mosquito biting patterns in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania are examined and the protection against exposure to malaria transmission that is(More)
BACKGROUND Malaria control in Africa is most tractable in urban settlements yet most research has focused on rural settings. Elimination of malaria transmission from urban areas may require larval control strategies that complement adult mosquito control using insecticide-treated nets or houses, particularly where vectors feed outdoors. METHODS AND(More)
BACKGROUND Data are limited for mortality and comorbidities in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVES Compare mortality rates and event rates for comorbidities in MS (n=15,684) and non-MS (n=78,420) cohorts from the US Department of Defense (DoD) database. METHODS Comorbidities and all-cause mortality were assessed using the database. Causes(More)
The assessment and demonstration of a positive benefit-risk balance of a drug is a life-long process and includes specific data from preclinical, clinical development and post-launch experience. However, new integrative approaches are needed to enrich evidence from clinical trials and sponsor-initiated observational studies with information from multiple(More)
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