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The detailed clinical, electrophysiological and imaging data of three German autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia (ADCA) families are reported. Linkage to SCA2 was established using microsatellite markers D12S105, D12S1339(1328), D12S 1340(1329) yielding a lod score exceeding +3.0 for the combined data. Analysis of the pedigree data provided evidence of(More)
Hepatitis E virus has recently been recognized as having zoonotic potential and could be transmitted from pig to human. Pigs are identified as a potential animal reservoir and HEV is highly prevalent in the swine population around the world. In this study, the presence of HEV was investigated in 51 subjects reared on a simulated commercial farm setting from(More)
Swine Hepatitis E virus (HEV) could be a zoonotic agent for HEV infection in humans. In Canada, approximately 60% of 6-mo-old commercial pigs are seropositive for HEV; the prevalence is higher in the provinces of Quebec and Ontario. A study was set up to evaluate the presence of swine HEV in Quebec farms and to compare the strains detected in fecal samples(More)
Using different primer and probe sets, RT-PCR, NASBA and TaqMan RT-PCR molecular methods were compared to detect NoV GII in 13 clinical stool samples. The RT-PCR results observed by gel electrophoresis (Ando, Kageyama and Anderson amplification and probe systems), dot blot hybridization (Ando and Kageyama) and real-time TaqMan assay (Ando and Kageyama) were(More)
Every year, enteric viruses such as hepatitis A virus (HAV), rotaviruses, and noroviruses are responsible for viral gastro-enteritis and hepatitis reported worldwide. These viruses are mostly transmitted via the faecal-oral route, from direct contact between people, or by ingestion of contaminated food and water. Since only a few viral particles may cause(More)
OBJECTIVES In January 2004, an increase in gastrointestinal illness following oyster consumption was reported in British Columbia. An investigation was initiated to explore the association between norovirus infection and consumption of British Columbia oysters and to identify the source of oyster contamination. METHODS The outbreak investigation included(More)
Vegetables can be considered as a vector of transmission for human hepatic and enteric viruses such as hepatitis A virus (HAV) and noroviruses when contaminated by spoiled irrigation water or when prepared by infected food handlers. Recently, outbreaks of HAV have been reported in the USA involving fresh green onions. A viral elution-concentration method(More)
Many food and waterborne outbreaks of infectious disease are caused by viruses. While numerous methods exist and are being developed to test food and water for the presence of enteric viruses, there is no standard control for the comparison of different methods. Potential control viruses should be well characterized, share the physical characteristics of(More)
Counterfeit and unapproved medicines are inherently dangerous and can cause patient injury due to ineffectiveness, chemical or biological contamination, or wrong dosage. Growth of the counterfeit medical market in developed countries is mainly attributable to life-style drugs, which are used in the treatment of non-life-threatening and non-painful(More)
Three novel real-time TaqMan RT-PCR assays targeting the 5'-UTR, the viral protease and the viral polymerase regions of the hepatitis A virus (HAV) were developed, evaluated and compared against a new published 5'-UTR TaqMan assay (JN) and a widely used conventional RT-PCR assay (HAVc). All conventional RT-PCR (HAV, SH-Prot and SH-Poly systems) and TaqMan(More)