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Although axonal regeneration after CNS injury is limited, partial injury is frequently accompanied by extensive functional recovery. To investigate mechanisms underlying spontaneous recovery after incomplete spinal cord injury, we administered C7 spinal cord hemisections to adult rhesus monkeys and analyzed behavioral, electrophysiological and anatomical(More)
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE Spinal cord damage in myelomeningocele (MMC) results from abnormal cord development and subsequent local trauma. Prenatal surgery prevents additional neural injury. However, existing damage is not reversed. Biodegradable nanofibrous scaffolds (NSs) promote regeneration of neural tissues. They mimic the microtopography of the extracellular(More)
Medical records and endoscopy images were examined for 209 horses that had gastroscopic examinations performed with a 2.5- or 3-m-long endoscope by one of the authors (MJM) during a 4-year period (1996-2000). The antrum and pylorus were viewed in 162 horses, and the duodenum was viewed in 94 horses. Of these 162 horses, the gastric squamous mucosa was seen(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be a powerful tool for characterization of spinal cord pathology in animal models. We evaluated the utility of medium-field MRI for the longitudinal assessment of progression of spinal cord injury (SCI) in a rat model. Thirteen adult rats were subjected to a 6.25 or 25 g-cm unilateral cervical SCI, and underwent MRI(More)
Spinal cord injury often results in loss of normal eliminative and sexual functions. This chapter is focused on defecatory function, although aspects of micturition and erectile function will be covered as well due to the overlap in anatomical organization and response to injury. These systems have both autonomic and somatic components, and are organized in(More)
Transplantation of glial restricted precursor (GRP) cells has been shown to reduce glial scarring after spinal cord injury (SCI) and, in combination with neuronal restricted precursor (NRP) cells or enhanced expression of neurotrophins, to improve recovery of function after SCI. We hypothesized that combining GRP transplants with rolipram and cAMP would(More)
BACKGROUND Reliable outcome measures are essential for preclinical modeling of spinal cord injury (SCI) in primates. MEASURES need to be sensitive to both increases and decreases in function in order to demonstrate potential positive or negative effects of therapeutics. OBJECTIVES To develop behavioral tests and analyses to assess recovery of function(More)
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE Neurological function in patients with myelomeningocele (MMC) is limited even after prenatal repair. Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) can improve neurological function in models of spinal cord injury. We aimed to evaluate the survival, integration, and differentiation of human NCSCs derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC-NCSCs)(More)
Primates are an important and unique animal resource. We have developed a nonhuman primate model of spinal cord injury (SCI) to expand our knowledge of normal primate motor function, to assess the impact of disease and injury on sensory and motor function, and to test candidate therapies before they are applied to human patients. The lesion model consists(More)
Spinal cord injury (SCI) remains a major challenge for regenerative medicine. Following SCI, axon growth inhibitors and other inflammatory responses prevent functional recovery. Previous studies have demonstrated that rolipram, an anti-inflammatory and cyclic adenosine monophosphate preserving small molecule, improves spinal cord regeneration when delivered(More)