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Plasmodesmata (PD) are essential but poorly understood structures in plant cell walls that provide symplastic continuity and intercellular communication pathways between adjacent cells and thus play fundamental roles in development and pathogenesis. Viruses encode movement proteins (MPs) that modify these tightly regulated pores to facilitate their spread(More)
One salient feature of reverse transcription in retroviruses, notably in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1, is that it requires the homologous nucleocapsid (NC) protein acting as a chaperoning partner of the genomic RNA template and the reverse transcriptase, from the initiation to the completion of viral DNA synthesis. This short review on the NC(More)
HIV-1 Vpr is a highly conserved accessory protein that is involved in many functions of the virus life cycle. Vpr facilitates the entry of the HIV pre-integration complex through the nuclear pore, induces G2 cell cycle arrest, regulates cell apoptosis, increases transcription from the long terminal repeat and enhances viral replication. Vpr contains a(More)
Activated human neuropeptide Y Y(1) receptors rapidly desensitize and internalize through clathrin-coated pits and recycle from early and recycling endosomes, unlike Y(2) receptors that neither internalize nor desensitize. To identify motifs implicated in Y(1) receptor desensitization and trafficking, mutants with varying C-terminal truncations or a(More)
NCp7, the nucleocapsid protein of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1, induces an ordered aggregation of RNAs, a mechanism that is thought to be involved in the NCp7-induced promotion of nucleic acid annealing. To further investigate this aggregation the morphology and the properties of the NCp7-induced aggregates of the model RNA homoribopolymer,(More)
Desensitization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) involves receptor phosphorylation and reduction in the number of receptors at the cell surface. The neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y(1) receptor undergoes fast desensitization. We examined agonist-induced signaling and internalization using NPY Y(1) receptors fused to green fluorescent protein (EGFP). When(More)
Information on the structure and dynamics of condensed forms of DNA is important in understanding both natural situations such as DNA packaging and artificial systems such as gene delivery complexes. We have established the fluorescence of bisintercalator(More)
Polyethylenimines (PEI) constitute efficient nonviral vectors for gene transfer. However, because free PEI shows some cytotoxicity and because intracellular dissociation of PEI/DNA complexes seems to be required for efficient transfection, it is important to monitor the concentrations of free and bound partners in the mixtures of DNA and PEI used for(More)
Polyethylenimine (PEI) is one of the most efficient nonviral vectors for gene therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of endocytosis in the transfection of synchronized L929 fibroblasts by PEI/DNA complexes. This was performed by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry, using the endocytosis marker FM4-64 and PEI/DNA complexes labeled(More)
On the basis of the three-dimensional structure of the glycolytic NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and of sequence comparison with the photosynthetic NAD(P)-dependent GAPDH of the chloroplast, a series of mutants of GAPDH from Bacillus stearothermophilus have been constructed. The results deduced from kinetic and binding(More)