Yves Médard

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Cytochromes P450 3A (CYP3A) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are mainly located in enterocytes and hepatocytes. The CYP3A/P-gp system contributes to the first-pass metabolism of many drugs, resulting in a limited bioavailability. During the neonatal period, a shift between CYP3A7, the fetal form, and CYP3A4 occurs in the liver, but data on the expression of the(More)
Thiopurine drugs are commonly used in pediatric patients for the treatment of acute leukemia, organ transplantation and inflammatory diseases. They are catabolized by the cytosolic thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT), which is subject to a genetic polymorphism. In children, enzyme activities are immature at birth and developmental patterns vary widely from(More)
1. Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) is a cytosolic enzyme involved in the catabolism of thiopurine drugs, which are used to treat cancer patients and organ transplant recipients. Because TPMT activity is polymorphic and under genetic control, large interindividual variations in the immunosuppressive activity and toxicity of these drugs may, at least in(More)
AIMS 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) is used in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Its red blood cell (RBC) metabolite concentrations (6-thioguanine [6-TGN] and 6-methylmercaptopurine nucleotides [6-MMPN]) are related to drug response. We investigated the impact of non-genetic covariates and pharmacogenetic polymorphisms affecting(More)
Oxybutynin (Ditropan), a direct antagonist of acetylcholine on muscarinic receptors, is administered in children for the treatment of vesical immaturity and is responsible for atropinic adverse effects, which are more frequent in paediatric than in adult patients. Oxybutynin is metabolized by oxidation to N-desethyloxybutynin, a stable and toxic metabolite,(More)
6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP) is metabolized by thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT), an enzyme subject to genetic polymorphism. We investigated the relationships between the TPMT locus (TPMT activity and genotype) and the pharmacological response to 6-MP during maintenance therapy of 78 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). For each patient, 6-MP(More)
Objective: The pharmacokinetics of 6-mercaptopurine, including cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF) distribution, and the erythrocyte 6-thioguanine nucleotide concentrations were determined in children randomised to receive intravenous mercaptopurine for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), according to the EORTC protocol ALL n°58881. Results: After 1 month of oral(More)
AIMS Azathioprine is a prodrug commonly used in combination therapy to prevent allograft rejection after renal transplantation. After conversion to 6-mercaptopurine, the drug is metabolized into 6-thioguanine nucleotides (6-TGN) and catabolized by thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT), an enzyme under monogenic control. The aim of this study was to evaluate(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic and invalidating inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology. The coordinated action of the cytochrome metabolizing subfamily CYP3A and the transport protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the enterocyte results in a reduced bioavailability of drugs administered orally. Cytokines modulate the expression and(More)
BACKGROUND Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in extremely preterm infants remains a challenging condition with conflicting treatment strategies. Ibuprofen is currently used to treat PDA with ductal closure failure rate up to 40%. We test the hypothesis that cytochrome P450 CYP2C8/2C9 polymorphisms may predict ibuprofen response. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL(More)